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Chapter 1-15

Terms in this set (492)

1. The national convention:
promoted as a more democratic alternative to the discredited破坏 congressional caucus, allowing much broader popular participation in making presidential nominations.用一种民主的手段去破坏caucus,让更多人发言来决定总统候选人。就是想要毁掉强无敌的caucuses,凭什么你几个成员就可以主导所有人的意见,那岂不是好胖胖

But it also was an eminently显著地 practical device for solving problems of conflict and coordination that stand in the path to the White House. The convention was the occasion for assembling, and later refurbishing刷新, the national party coalition. It provided a forum讨论的地方 for doing the politicking谈论政治 that convinced diverse party factions to agree to unite behind a single presidential ticket—without necessarily agreeing on anything else.提供一个地方让大家谈论政治观点,让多样化的政党在一个候选人的背后团结起来,而又不同强迫去同意别人的意见
意义:In effect, the parties solved the problem of free riding endemic to mass electorates选民 by making participation exciting and fun.

2. The spoils腐败 system:
Parties pursue a collective good: victory for their candidates and policies. All who prefer the winner benefit from the party's victory whether or not they contribute to it. Thus, without some prospect of private reward for party activists as well, the free-rider problem would have left parties stillborn. Intensified party competition and put a heavy premium on winning.很严重的free rider

Positive side: putting victory ahead of principle made parties open and inclusive包含的. For a time, broad national coalitions helped manage the dangerous intersectional conflict over slavery and other divisive issues. The high stakes also inspired imaginative efforts to mobilize动员 the first mass electorate选民 in history. 好处是开放与包容,国际联合解决奴隶制问题并一致选民。
Negative side: the desire to win contributed to corruption, moral myopia缺乏远见 regarding slavery, and public cynicism玩世不恭 about the honesty and motives of politicians. In either case, the Democrats and Whigs of the second party system set the pattern for the future: every successful American party has cared more about winning elections than about furthering a consistent set of principles.坏处是对奴隶制缺乏远见,不诚信,对于保持公众一致,更想赢。

结果:
Principled conflict is often a threat to party coalitions. Established party politicians put unity first because their careers depend on it, but voters and activists have no such stake and may care very deeply about the positions a party takes on controversial issues.But both parties had northern and southern wings and so were badly split by the slavery issue. When the extension of slavery became the dominant national issue, the coalitions that formed the second party system fell apart. For the first and only time in U.S. history, a third party emerged to supplant排挤 one of the two dominant parties.政党都很害怕意见不一致,但是投票者只在意政党对于有争议看法的地位。对于奴隶制,两党意见不同。当加大对奴隶制的关注后,第二政党体系瓦解,第三政党出现取代了两党中一党的地位。
The Republican Party, a coalition of antislavery forces, is unusual only in the success of its challenge to the two-party establishment. Third parties have arisen time and again, but most have failed to attract enough of a following to become more than obscure模糊的 refuges庇护 for the disaffected不满的.

Kansas-Nebraska Act: overturned推翻 limits on the extension of slavery to the territories enacted
堪萨斯-内布拉斯加法案:取消限制奴隶制扩展到西部新开发地区的法案(The Republican Party was formed in opposition to it)

Although founded on the slavery issue, the Republican Party was by no means a single-issue party. It also appealed to business and commercial interests by promising a protective tariff and a transcontinental railway and to farmers by promising free land for homesteading.

On only its second try the party elected a president, Abraham Lincoln. His victory over divided opposition triggered the South's secession分离 from the Union and then the Civil War, from which the Republicans emerged as the party of victory and union.

For the next generation the party sought to retain its ascendancy支配地位 by appealing variously to patriotism, national expansion, and laissez-faire自由主义 capitalism and by distributing pensions退休金 to Civil War veterans and protective tariffs to manufacturers. The end of Reconstruction restored local control to white southern politicians and left the newly revived Democratic Party, dominant in the South and with pockets of strength in the West, border states, and northern urban areas, a nearly equal competitor for national power.政党用退休金来留人,目的是为了保持它的支配地位。在南方掌权,并在西方北方也有权利,它拥有相当于国际力量的权利。
Election:
1. A primary election, the outcome of which would determine at least 90 percent of the state's delegation.
2. Or they could hold local party caucuses open to all Democrats, who would select delegates to a meeting at the county, congressional district, or state level. These delegates would in turn elect delegates to the national convention. The easiest option was the primary, and most state parties have adopted it.
3. the winner-take-all method of allocating delegates. Instead of awarding all of a state's delegates to the top vote getter, the new rules allocated delegates proportionately to candidates according to the share of votes they received in the primary or the caucus. To meet the "representativeness" standard, delegations had to include more minorities, women, and young adults. Because most elected officeholders were white males over thirty, these rules meant that many of them could no longer attend the convention.

Previously the party's supreme plum, its presidential nomination, had been conferred by party leaders, who sought to pick a winner who would be obligated to them and therefore send presidential favors their way.
Moreover, they wanted a candidate who would help the whole party ticket on Election Day. Now the nomination goes to the candidate who can best mobilize support in primary elections.
If party leaders are to exercise any influence in this process, they must do it by delivering endorsements, money, and other electoral resources to their favorite before and during the primary season.

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