Terms in this set (56)
A social group whose members see themselves as a single people because of shared ancestry, culture, language or history.
An independent political entity that controls a geographical territory with clear boundaries and that defends itself from external threats with an army and from internal disorder with police.
Possess specialized institutions for collecting revenue and other public duties
The state monopolizes the legitimate use of physical force
Nation-State is the attempt to combine notions of 'nation' and 'state' into a cohesive entity
What tends to unite individuals who claim some identity affiliation to a nation is often the idea of what that nation represents, etc...
Political and Economic
where a reevaluation of larger institutions often occurs and policies are reactionary to the crisis
: (Benedict Anderson) Members of a nation do not have face-to-face contact but identity is shared through national institutions
Subject to government bureaucracies
Globalization as vehicle
What is an approach that is framed through political economy
Economic and political behaviors
How political institutions, the political environment and economics influence one another
Anthropology: focuses on notions of development and underdevelopment
all adult members of a society have equal access to valued resources, both material and social
egalitarian in nature, often foraging societies, small scale
change in band societies associated with domestication of plants and animals
emergence of distinction among lineages, status and ranking
Individual chosen by others in an egalitarian group to deal with outsiders in ambiguous or threatening situations
Individual considered 'big' for their ability to use personal persuasive skills to arrange total social phenomena
The ways in which power relations (particularly unequal power relations) affect human social affairs.
How members of different societies make public decisions that affect society as a whole
Why people accept these decisions as right or criticize them as wrong
How leadership is understood and recognized
How competition between rivals is regulated
How disputes are settled
How does power operate?
Mapping power through a variety of processes linked to:
Forms of Power
General: a generalized capacity to transform
Standard: coercive power, the use of physical force
Culturally constructed: persuasive power
Symbolic: how power operates upon us on a symbolic level
Whereas most conceptions of power consider it to be a top down process of repression, Foucault conceptualized power as productive...this does not mean that it is a positive force. Rather, through critical studies of social institutions like psychiatry, the prison and sexuality, he demonstrates how these institutions create and act upon social subjects.
Power and Knowledge are intertwined in a reciprocal and reaffirming relationship based on specialized knowledge
Foucault's ideas of power/knowledge bring to our attention the fact that in fields of specialized knowledge, our actions are governed by the constituents of the power structures themselves.
This means that there cannot be criminology without prisons, forensic DNA without police, and medicine without the clinic.
It means the understanding in fields of knowledge are manufactured within their discourses.
Discourse: a system of representation; the rules and practices that produced meaningful statements and regulated discourse in different historical periods
specific positions of agency and identity in relation to particular forms of knowledge and practice
a technology of power, the literal power over other bodies
Foucault operation of power
Discourses come together to act upon a culturally constructed subject in the exercise of dominance
Deemed essential to the construction of the modern nation state and capitalism: control entire populations
"the biopolitics of the population: Historical
the hysterical woman
Early psychiatry/male dominated society
Psychiatry produces this subject
Actions place in repressive role
A moral panic is the intensity of feeling expressed by a large population about a specific group of people who appear to threaten the social/moral order at a given time. It invokes connotations of irrationality.
War on Drugs
Satanic Ritual Abuse
Processual Stages of a Moral Panic
1) Something or someone is defined as a threat to values or interests
2) This threat is depicted in an easily recognizable form by the media
3) There is a rapid build-up of public concern
4) There is a response from authorities or opinion-makers, and
5) The panic recedes or results in social change.
Social Roles (Status)
Ideas about social roles are cultural constructions based upon preconceived notions indoctrinated through enculturation and exacerbated through ethnocentrism.
status over which you have little control, you are born into it or grow into it.
Often done through kinship...becoming a daughter or son and then becoming a parent as examples
status that you may not assume until or unless you meet certain criteria through your own (or other's) efforts
Being a college graduate
A negative or limiting preconceived belief about a certain type of person that is applied to everyone in that group. A stereotype is a popularly held belief about a type of person or a group of people that does not take into account individual differences. An exaggerated image of the characteristics of a particular group.
A form of social classification that is perceived as representing a scientific concept based on biological systems of classification; however, racial categories and parameters differ from society to society, which shows that the concept is socially constructed
Race is a social and cultural construction; it is not a classificatory system supported by biology although it is conceived to be 'natural' and relies on phenotype
The term "redlining" was coined in the late 1960s by community activists in Chicago. It describes the practice of marking a red line on a map to delineate the area where banks would not invest; later the term was applied to discrimination against a particular group of people (usually by race or sexual orientation) no matter the geography. During the heyday of redlining, the areas most frequently discriminated against were black inner city neighborhoods
A practice used by real estate agents and developers in the United States to encourage white property owners to sell their homes by giving the impression that minorities were moving into their previously racially segregated neighborhood
Stratified societies in which membership in a particular ranked subgroup is ascribed at birth and in which social mobility, or movement by individuals out of the subgroup in which they were born, is not allowed.
Most closely associated with Indian traditional culture prior to social reform
Practiced predominantly by Hindu but also found among Muslims and Christians
Symbolically and literally found in US culture
United States: The Social Register and the Boston Brahmin
Ranked subgroups in a stratified society whose members are differentiated from one another primarily in economic terms
Income level and symbolic wealth
Property ownership (Classic Marx)
Bourgeoisie (capitalist class)
Own the means of production
Proletariat (working class)
Own their own labor power
The culturally constructed behavior associated with the different sexes, which are taught to children during the process of enculturation
Even the role of 'sexes' that gender is based upon is not a given or a constant
the differing values of genders in society and their assigned roles
Male vs. Female domains of activity
Gender shifting occurs in many societies, in which a person of one gender dresses and behaves as the other.
Berdache and Nadleehi
refer to an individual in Native American Plains societies who is biologically linked to one constructed gender, but who dresses and behaves as the opposite gender; Perhaps best conceived as a 'third gender'
Political conquest of one society by another; The establishment of colonies by Western nations which were in search of raw materials, new markets, land, or labor for economic gain
Followed by social domination and cultural change
Direct rule vs. Indirect rule
A form of violence which corresponds in systemic ways in which a given social structure or social institution kills people slowly by preventing them from meeting their basic needs...there is a continuum of structural violence from the colonial era to today
A situation in which the ideas and practices of one culture are imposed upon other cultures, which may be modified or eliminated
The ideas and practices of Western European (or North American) culture eventually displaced many of the ideas and practices of the indigenous cultures of the colonies
Refers to the time after the breakdown of colonial empires and the continued significance of institutions and structures established during the colonial period
The dominance of one group over other groups; cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group.
Power lies in coercion without physical violence
Based on the theories of Antonio Gramsci
the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies.
Argued that poverty and 'underdevelopment' were a consequence of capitalist colonial intervention in otherwise thriving independent societies, and not some original lowly state in which colonized territories had been languishing until the colonizers arrived
Domestically: movement of the economy from government to the private sector. Refers to a political-economic philosophy that de-emphasizes or rejects government intervention in the domestic economy. It focuses on free-market methods, fewer restrictions on business operations, and property rights.
Internationally: In foreign policy, neoliberalism favors the opening of foreign markets by political means, using diplomacy, economic pressure and, for some neoliberals, military might.
Nation states are encouraged to focus on their place in the global market rather than their own domestic economy and policies.
Countries that are fully industrialized, monopolize technological expertise and innovation, control financial decision-making for the system as a whole, and pay relatively high wages to skilled workers are said to belong to the core of the world system
Countries whose main contributions to capitalism are raw materials for industries in the core and expanding markets for manufactured goods
Nations either once part of the core or look as though they might someday be able to move into the core
A process that marks the rapid transformations in the lives of people in most parts of the world, brought about by the development of a worldwide network of finance and capital; this process is occurring at an increasingly rapid rate due to advances in telecommunications and computer technology
2.Refers to the intensification of global interconnectedness, suggesting a world full of movement and mixture, contact and linkages, and persistent cultural interaction and exchange. It speaks, in other words, to the complex mobilities and interconnections that characterize the globe today.
The World is Flat
Aspects of Globalization
Particular mobility/cultural flow
Crossing national boundaries
Speed of information/commerce
New space/time boundaries
The sub-field of anthropology concerned with the production and application of anthropological knowledge to the solution of practical problems, initiating direct action or contributing to the formation of a broad range of policies
The work of Paul Farmer in Pathologies of Power
The manner in which the speeding up of economic and social processes has experientially shrunk the globe, so that distance and time no longer appear to be major constraints on the organization of human activity.
...How the pressures of technological and economic change have continually collapsed time and space, resulting in the annihilation of space by time: in the reorganization of time in such a way to overcome the barriers of space.
The conditions under which time and space are organized so as to connect presence and absence.
There are two types of social interaction:
face to face contact
closely bounded local spaces
social life dominated by presence
possible by transport and communication systems
relations between 'absent' others
...Lifts our social relations from local contexts of interaction and rearranges them across expansive spans of time/space
Giddens definition of Globalization
The intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.
Being at ease in more than one cultural setting
Extension: being comfortable with multiple conceptions of time and its relation to culture as well
Can be considered 'cultural capital