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1920s Unit Test - Mr. Felton
Terms in this set (88)
1. Rising Labor Tension
2. Political Tension
3. Social Tension
4. Racial and Religious Tension
5. Economic Tensions
What are the various types of tension in the United States following World War I?
The act of discharging forces from military service or use
What is demobilization?
1. Employment situation grew worse
2. Economy (Recession)
What are the impacts of demobilization?
A hotly protested criminal case, held from 1920-1927, in which Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted of robbing and murdering two men and sentenced to death; Many people believed that the trial was unfair and that the defendants were prosecuted because they were anarchists, not because they were guilty
What is the Sacco and Vanzetti case?
After World War I, workers struggled to keep the gains they had made during the war years. As the war had raged, the federal government had encouraged businesses and labor to cooperate
What are rising labor tensions?
Fear of socialists, communists, and anarchists fueled the Red Scare. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer led raids against suspected subversives, often violating their civil liberties
What is political tension?
Some native-born Americans eyed many immigrants- especially those who were poor and spoke little English- with suspicion (Back-to-Africa Movement)
What is social tension?
Several citizens faced severe legal discrimination
What is racial and religious tension?
As unemployment rose, living standards for all but the richest Americans declined (Recession)
What is economic tension?
Period in which there is a decline in economic activity and prosperity
What is recession?
1. Dedication to the union movement
2. Many believed that the two men were convicted because of radical politics
3. They were immigrants so many Americans eyed them
4. "I have suffered because I was an Italian" ~ Vanzetti
Why is the Sacco and Vanzetti case a good representation of the postwar tensions that existed in America?
A point of view favoring extreme change, especially in social or economic structure
What is radicalism?
An economic or political system in which the state or the community owns all property and the means of production, and all citizens share the wealth
What is communism?
Conducted by Justice Department attorney J. Edgar Hoover at the instruction of U.S. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer, a series of unauthorized raids on homes, businesses, and meeting places of suspected subversives that resulted in the arrest of 6,000 radicals, often without any evidence against them
What are the Palmer Raids?
Lasting from 1919 to 1920, a campaign launched by U.S. attorney general Mitchell Palmer and implemented by Justice Department attorney H. Edgar Hoover to arrest communists and other radicals who promoted the overthrow of the U.S. government; Revived during the Cold War by Senator Joseph McCarthy during a period of anticommunism lasting 1950-1957
What is the Red Scare?
The rising tide of immigrants triggered a resurgence of nativism along with calls for immigration restriction. A quota system limits the number of immigrants from each country
How did the increase in immigration lead to nativism and a quota system?
"Defender of American Values"; Restricted membership to native-born white Protestants and set itself against African-Americans, immigrants, Catholics, and Jews
What is the Ku Klux Klan?
Organization founded in 1920 to defend Americans' rights and freedoms as given in the Constitution
What is the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)?
Concept of life before WWI, when the nation could focus on its own domestic prosperity
What did Warren Harding mean by "normalcy?"
Political Party: Republican
Approach to Business: BIG BUSINESS
What did the presidencies of Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover have in common?
Process of reducing number of weapons in a nation's arsenal or the size of its armed forces
What is disarmament?
Government policy of not taking part in economic and political alliances or relations with other countries
What is isolationism?
After WWI, many Americans favored a policy of isolationism, or withdrawal from international affairs
How did many Americans at the end of the war regarding getting involved in other nations' disputes feel?
1. Farms closed
2. Prices rose
3. Troops needed jobs
What is the method used by Henry Ford?
He made an assembly like that cut production time from 14 to 6 hours. Then, he cut prices
How did Henry Ford's approach allow him to pay his employees higher wages while lowering the cost of his product?
Developed hundreds of new goods from agricultural products, especially the peanut
What did George Washington Carver do?
Who earned fame as a silent film and "talkie" star?
Became an instant celebrity as he successfully completed a solo trans-Atlantic flight from New York to Paris
What did Charles Lindbergh do?
Who developed a system for flash-freezing fresh food?
Credited with formation of National Broadcasting Company (NBC) that later became a major television network
What did David Sarnoff do?
Who was a poet, playwright, and fiction-writer who described the African-American struggle for equality?
Responsible for development of assembly-line system angered by competitors
What did Henry Ford do?
Who became famous as a multi-sport athlete who excelled in track, baseball, and football?
Aviator who inspired man women
What did Amelia Earhart do?
Who was the most famous adman of 1920s?
Early movie actor who was adored by millions of Americans, especially women
What did Rudolph Valentino do?
Who was the 1st woman in American history to be elected to the House of Representatives?
Arguably the most famous female singer of the time, earning the nickname, "Empress of the Blues"
Who was Bessie Smith?
Who founded Planned Parenthood, which is still in existence today?
Influential figure in the fight for women's suffrage and an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution
Who is Alice Paul?
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Who wrote "The Great Gatsby," which has been made into several movies?
Legend as a baseball player for the Yankees
Who is Babe Ruth?
Who found fame on the golf course as America's best golfer, winning some of golf's most prestigious tournaments?
Famous artist of 1920s, best known for paintings of flowers and desert landscapes
Who is Georgia O'Keeffe?
Who was the most famous boxer in the world?
Olympic medalist in swimming and defied the odds and swam the 35-mile English Channel
Who was Gertrude Ederle?
Who wrote many famous works including "The Sun Also Rises" and "The Old Man and the Sea?"
America's most famous jazz and blues singer
Who is Louis Armstrong?
Famous as a dancer of the Charleston
Who is Bee Jackson?
Dance that originated as an African-American folk dance in the South and became popular throughout the U.S. and Europe during the Roaring Twenties
What is the Charleston?
Culture of ordinary people, including music, visual art, literature, and entertainment, that is shaped by industries that spread information and ideas, especially the mass media
What is popular culture?
Culture that views consumption of large quantities of goods as beneficial to the economy and a source of personal happiness
What is consumer culture?
2. Installment Buying
How were Americans able to make larger purchases without having all the money up front?
Arrangement for buying something now with borrowed money and paying off loan over time
What is credit?
Arrangement in which buyer makes down payment on product to be purchased and seller loans the remainder of the purchase price to buyer; Purchaser must pay back loan over time, in monthly installments, or seller can reclaim product
What is installment buying?
Technology that is intended to reach a mass audience
What is mass media?
National magazines, radio, and motion pictures brought news, information, and entertainment to millions of Americans. Regional differences began to fade as a new national popular culture became part of daily life
How did mass media greatly contribute to the popular culture?
1. It has no imaginable commercial value
2. Mass medium that could reach very large audiences
What is the importance of radio in the 1920s?
1. Gained the right to vote
2. Organize and enter politics
3. Lobbied lawmakers to enact legislation of special interests to women
4. Expanded educational and job opportunities
What were the gains made by women?
Which amendment gave women the right to vote?
Jazz became increasingly popular in the U.S.
Why are the 1920s also called the Jazz Age?
Music form developed by African-Americans beginning in 1910s and influenced by blues, ragtime, and European and African musical traditions
What is jazz?
Era of heightened creativity among African-Americans writers, artists, and musicians who gathered in Harlem during the 1920s
What is the Harlem Renaissance?
Movement of blacks to the north, to NYC in this case
What caused the Harlem Renaissance?
Person who embraces new ideas, styles, and social trends
What is a modernist?
Person who has deep respect for long-held cultural and religious values
What is a traditionalist?
MODERNISTS: as young people spent more time ever before outside the home or workspace, a new youth culture emerged; flappers-colored and short hair, dresses above knees, makeup, jewelry, casual dating; against prohibition ("wets"); believe in science
TRADITIONALISTS: many adults considered behavior of young people reckless and immoral; for prohibition ("drys"); believe in the Bible
Why did modernists and traditionalists come into conflict during the 1920s?
1. Economic opportunities
2. Offered freedom to explore new ways of thinking and living
Why did many Americans move from the country to the cities in the years following WWI?
During the Roaring Twenties, a young woman who broke with traditional expectations for how women should dress and behave
What is a flapper?
1. Colored hair
2. Cut hair short
3. Skimpy dresses barely covered knees
4. Rolled stockings below knees
5. Unfastened rain boots that flapped around ankles
9. Danced the night away at jazz clubs
10. "Casual dating"
Why did flappers shock the older generation so much?
Action of forbidding something (in 1920s, alcohol)
What is prohibition?
People against prohibition of alcohol (modernists)
Who are the "wets?"
People for prohibition of alcohol (traditionalists)
Who are the "drys?"
Law passed by Congress in 1919 to enforce the 18th Amendment, which prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
What is the Volstead Act?
Most famous American gangster and was a bootlegger, smuggler, and speakeasy owner
Who is Al Capone?
Production, transport, and sale of illegal alcohol
What is bootlegging?
Secret club that sold alcohol during the era of prohibition
What are speakeasies?
Lawlessness, violence, and corruption increased
Why did many people feel that prohibition caused more problems than it solved?
What amendment made alcohol illegal?
What amendment made alcohol legal once again?
Criminal trial, held in Dayton, Ohio, in 1925, that tested the constitutionality of a Tennessee law that banned the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution in schools; Science teacher John Scopes was found guilty and fined for his conduct, leaving the Tennessee law intact
What is the Scopes Trial?
1. Clarence Darrow (Defense)
2. William Jennings Bryan (Prosecution)
Who were the major players in the Scopes Trial?
Creationism (traditionalist) vs. Evolution (modernist)
How did the Scopes Trial show the traditionalist vs. modernist conflict of the 1920s?
Fueled by people's suspicions and dislike of immigrants and radicals
How are radicalism, communism, the Palmer Raids, and the Red Scare related?
Bills piled up and no one really owned much
Why was credit dangerous?
You still owed a lot of money and many could not keep up with payments and interest
Why was installment buying dangerous?
Outlaw war between countries
What was the Kellogg-Brand Act?
Instituted by Supreme Court in 1971 case Lemon v. Kurtzman, a three-point assessment used to determine whether a government action violates the 1st Amendment's ban on any "law respecting an establishment of religion"; Assessment states that to be constitutional, government action must (1) have a nonreligious purpose, (2) neither help nor hurt religion, and (3) not result in an "excessive entanglement" of government and religion
What was the Lemon Test?
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