HERM Study Guide Semester 1
Terms in this set (83)
language and phrases that are figurative, meaning that they have another meaning.
The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind usually using like or as
a figure of speech that describes an object or action in a way that isn't literally true, but helps explain an idea or make a comparison.
Referring to an inanimate object as if it could embody a quality, concept, or movement.
An exaggerated statements not meant to be taken literally
Phrase with conjoining contradictory terms
A person or a thing that is the opposite of something or someone else. Only with parallel structure.
A formation of a word from a sound
Tone is the attitude of a writer toward a subject or audience. ALL CAPS = ANGRY TONE
The main idea or an underlying meaning of a literary work. Usually states "what the work says about the subject"
a state of affairs or an event that seems deliberately contrary to what one expects and is often amusing as a result.
The comparison of two different things
Repetition is a literary device that repeats the same words or phrases a few times to make an idea clearer and more memorable.
The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities.
An occurring element that had symbolic significance in a story; can help produce other narrative (or literary) aspects such as theme or mood.
A description of language that appeals to the senses
Word choice; style of speaking/writing
A reference to a person, place, or event. can reference literature, history, film, or religion.
The point in a piece of literary work where a character has a sudden insight or realization that changes his or her understanding.
Past events that writers insert to give a reader background information.
Foreshadowing is giving a "shadow" of the future.
A literary element that evokes a certain feeling within the audience- emotional atmosphere that includes the readers
Point of View
The narrator's position in relation to the story being told.
The person who is understood to be speaking
the organisation of a sentence/writing piece
The way words and phrases are arranged to make a complete sentences, the rules that govern how sentences are made.
The creation of a character and the description of its features.
when the subject of the sentence performs the action
When the subject receives the action (usually includes "by
The repetitive use of the same words or phrases in sentences.
Different Ways to Begin Sentences
Beginning sentences with various ways such as simple subject and predicate, transition words and/or phrases, gerunds, adverb clauses, prepositional phrases, etc. Strengthens the piece of writing and furthers the writer's ability to grasp the reader's attention as well as improve their writing.
How to Improve Word Choices
Certain words that need to be replaced by stronger, active, separate(not contractions), more complex, or unused words.
A verb or verb phrase that modifies the subject but modifies a noun instead.
To give a lot of information clearly in a few words.
Sentence fragments are dependent clauses or phrases that do not express a complete thought.
Run On Sentences
A sentence that contains parts and ideas from two separate sentences, but are combined together without proper punctuation to make it understandable.
Clauses vs. Phrases
A clause is a thought that can stand alone and a phrases need either a subject or verb
The action of writing or printing using capital letters.
The subject and the verb must agree with each other in number
Style of writing with specific formatting for a written paper.
A thesis statement is the claim or main point of an essay usually found at the end of an introductory paragraph
Textual evidence is evidence from a text (fiction or nonfiction) that you can use to illustrate your ideas and support your arguments. All textual evidence should: Support a specific point. Be cited with a page number at the end of the sentence
Elaboration and Analysis
Uses all important data. No key omissions. Evidence supports arguments. Explains significance of data in depth. Goes beyond single word or sentence. Interprets new meanings from the data. Adapts data to the situation of the debate.
the end or finish of an event or process; a judgment or decision reached by reasoning.
Transition Words and Phrases
Transitions are words and phrases used to provide a connection between ideas, sentences, paragraphs,etc. They allow a piece of writing to flow as well as cover all the necessary topics.
Embedding of TE
Correctly embed textual evidence by using context and and explanation for the quote, in a connected sentence with the author
Citation of TE
Including the author's last name and the page number or paragraph number after the textual evidence
Topic and Concluding Sentences
Sentences found at the beginning and end of a paragraph that introduce and summarize the points made within that paragraph.
an appeal to ethics and a means of convincing someone of the character or credibility of the persuader.
Used to persuade a target or audience by employing the reasoning of logic
An appeal to emotion and is a way to convince an argument to an audience utilizing an emotional response
the action or fact of persuading someone or of being persuaded to do or believe something.
An argument directed at the opposing person, not their beliefs
an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference.
a short and amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person
Appeal to Authority
to false authority, appeal to unqualified authority, argument from false authority, ipse dixit) Description: Using an authority as evidence in your argument when the authority is not really an authority on the facts relevant to the argument.
Anticipation of Objection
preparation of argument (like a counter claim just more specific)
1. A square cart used for carrying a band in a parade. 2. A trend or a popular activity that others participate in, such as watching a certain tv show or dressing certain way.
used in argumentative writing, where one acknowledges a point made by one's opponent
something intended to improve a situation
a comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph, or lines in a poem.
A figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
Using offensive names to emphasize a point especially in an argument
a concise summary of essential points, statements, or facts
the reason for which something is done or created or for which something exists
A question not meant to be answered but instead to be used for dramatic effect.
When one says something that generally don't mean, in a tone/context that lets the listener that's a joke.
To convey a message without actually saying it.
a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
evidence of such probative value as to support the verdict of the jury or a finding of fact by the court.
to combine two or more elements to form a new whole
Evidence taken from text of novel, article, or other form of writing
Going more in depth than necessary to explain or throughly get one's point through.
A statement or opinion that is supported with evidence or reasoning.
A claim made to rebut a previous claim. Typically used in argumentative essays to disprove an opposing viewpoint.
To fight for something or someone, especially someone who fights for the rights of others
To express an idea fluently or coherently
Assert states a fact or belief confidently and forcefully.
To form an idea of the amount, number, or value of; assess.
Line of Reasoning
course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood
The opinion/viewpoint of an author about the subject matter he or she presents (particularly within an argumentative piece). This can most always be found within the author's thesis statement.
Something 100% true fact ex.All men are mortal