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Chapter 5: Species Interactions, Ecological succession, and Population Control
Terms in this set (45)
Explain how southern sea otters act as a keystone species in their environment.
Explain why we should care about protecting this species from extinction, which could result primarily from human activities.
Sea otters prey on the sea urchins, which helps the kelp forests. The sea otters keep the population of sea urchins down, which allows the kelp forests to grow, & helps keeps kelp forests from being destroyed. we need kelp forests because they provide biodiversity.
Sea otters should be protected is because they are a creature that everyone loves, which generates millions of dollars a year from tourism in the coastal areas where the sea otters are found and because they are a keystone species, and without the sea otter, the kelp forests would most likely be destroyed. We need kelp forests because biodiversity is extremely important to the earth's natural capital.
Key concept for 5.1
Five types of interactions among species- interspecific competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism- affect the resource use and population sizes of species.
Attempts by members of two or more species to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem.
Examples: Humans and animals
Intraspecific competition takes places within a species
Explain how it can increase species diversity?
Process of dividing up resources in and ecosystem so that species with similar needs (overlapping ecological niches) use the same scarce resources at different times, in different ways, or in different places.
Example: Insect-eating bird species
It increases species diversity, because eventually they can't all survive by sharing the same exact resource so one has to evolve with either having less or none of the resource
Interaction in which an organism of one species (the predator) captures and feeds on some or all parts of an organism of another species (the prey)
Organism that captures and feeds on some or all parts of an organism of another species (the prey)
Organism that is killed by an organism of another species (the predator) and serves as its source of food.
Why is it important?
Relationship that has evolved between two organisms, in which one organism has become the prey for the other, the latter called the predator.
It is important because interactions between predator and prey species can drive each other's evolution.
Why we should preserve kelp forests?
We should conserve kelp forests because biodiversity is an important part of the earth's natural capital.
Describe three ways in which predators can increase their chances of feeding on their prey and three ways in which prey species can avoid their predators.
Camouflage, Chemical Warfare, Ability to fly and run faster than their prey.
Camouflage, Chemical Warfare, Warning Coloration, Behavioral Strategies.
Evolution in which two or more species interact and exert selective pressures on each other that can lead each species to undergo adaptations.
Example- Bees and flowers
Interaction between species in which one organism, called the parasite, preys on another organism, called the host, by living on or in the host.
Example: fleas/ticks/tapeworms and mammals or mosquitoes and humans
Type of species interaction in which both participating species generally benefit
Example: bacteria in human intestines or Oxpeckers and Impalas
An interaction between organisms of different species in which one type of organism benefits and the other type is neither helped nor harmed to any great degree
Example: Epiphytes and tree trunks/ branches or bees and pollen
Explain how each of these species interactions, along with predation, can affect the population sizes of species in ecosystems.
Parasitism keeps the population in check; mutualism is one species on their own; Commensalism one benefits and the other isn't harmed
Key concept for 5.2
The species composition of a community or ecosystem can change in response to changing environmental condition through a process called ecological succession.
Process in which communities of plant and animal species in a particular area are replaced over time by a series of different and often more complex communities.
Primary ecological succession
Ecological succession in an area without soil of bottom sediments
Examples: bare rock exposed by a retreating glacier, newly cooled lava, an abandoned highway or parking lot, and a newly created shallow pond or reservoir
Secondary ecological succession
Ecological succession in an area in which natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil or bottom sediment has not been destroyed.
Examples: abandoned farmland, burned or cut forests, heavily polluted streams, and flooded land
Explain how living systems achieve some degree of sustainability by undergoing constant change in response to changing environmental conditions?
Stability, or capacity to withstand external stress and disturbance, is maintained only by constant change in response to changing environmental conditions.
The ability of living system such as a grassland or a forest to survive moderate disturbances
Example: Tropical Rain Forests
The ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a more severe disturbance
Key concept for 5.3
No population can grow indefinitely because of limitations on resources and because of competition among species for those resources.
Group of individual organisms of the same species living in a particular area.
Why do most populations live in clumps?
Allows them to cluster where resources are available, provides some protection from predators, and gives predator species a better chance of getting a meal.
Four variables that govern changes in population size.
Births, deaths, immigration, and emigration
Write an equation showing how these variables interact.
Population change= (Births + Immigration) - (Deaths + Emigration)
What is a population's age structure?
What are the three major age groups called?
Percentage of the population (or number of people of each gender) at each age level in a population
Prereproductive, Reproductive, and post-reproductive stages
Range of Tolerance
Range of variations in any physical or chemical environmental factor under which population can survive.
Single factor that limits the growth, abundance, or distribution of the population of a species in an ecosystem.
Example: low precipitation levels in desert ecosystems limit desert plant growth.
Explain how some limiting factors can become more important as a population's density increases?
Number of organisms in a particular population found in a specified area of land or volume of water or air.
Some limiting factors (Density-dependent) become more important as a population's density increases because, for instance, in a dense population, parasites and diseases can spread more easily, resulting in higher death rate. However, a higher population density can help sexually reproducing individuals to find mates more easily in order to produce offspring.
Exponential growth of a population
Growth in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases at a constant rate per unit of time. J-curve
Logistic growth of a population
Pattern in which exponential population growth occurs when the population is small, and population growth decreases steadily with time as the population approaches the carrying capacity. S-curve
All of the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a population.
Carrying capacity of an environment
Maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period.
Dieback of a population that has depleted its supply of resources, exceeding the carrying capacity of its environment.
Example: Reindeer were introduced onto a small island in the Bering Sea in the early 1900s
Species that have a capacity for a high rate of population growth. They tend to have many, usually small, offspring and to give them little or no parental care of protection.
Examples: algae, bacteria, and most insects
These species tend to do well in competitive conditions when their population size is near the carrying capacity of their environment. They tend to reproduce later in life and have a small number of offspring with fairly long life spans.
Example: Most large mammals, birds of prey,, and large and long-lived plants
Line graph that shows the percentages of the members of a population surviving at different ages.
Describe 3 types of curves
Late loss- typically has high survivorship to a certain age, then high mortality.
Early loss- survivorship is low early in life.
Constant loss- shows a fairly constant death rate at all ages.
Why is the recovery of the southern sea otters slow
What factors are threatening this recovery?
Female sea otters cannot reproduce fastly, because they cannot reproduce until they are 2 to 5 years old, and stop reproducing when they are 15. They are K- strategists, they have on average only one pup per year.
The population of otters has fluctuated because of changes in environmental conditions. The rise in number of orca whales, have caused populations of sea otters to decrease because the whales feed on the otters. The orca whales have started feeding on the otters because of a decline in the populations of the species that they typically prey on
Explain why humans are not exempt from nature's population controls.
Humans aren't exempt from population crashes, if they have used up their resources.
Chapter's three big ideas
Certain interactions among species affect their use of resources and their population sizes.
There are always limits to population growth in nature.
Changes in environmental conditions cause communities and ecosystems to gradually alter their species composition and population sizes (ecological succession).
Explain how the interactions among plant and animal species in any ecosystem are related to the scientific principles of sustainability.
Plants and animals depend, directly or indirectly, on solar energy, and all populations play roles in the cycling of nutrients in the ecosystems where they live. The biodiversity found in the variety of species in different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems provides alternative paths for energy flow and nutrient cycling, better opportunities for natural selection as environmental conditions changes, and natural population control mechanisms. Disrupting these paths violates all 3 scientific principles of sustainability.
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