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Miyamoto Final for BioX - Review
Terms in this set (56)
Characteristics of life (properties of life)
- order (the highly ordered structure that typifies life)
- reproduction (the ability of organisms to reproduce their own kind)
- growth and development (consistent growth and development controlled by inherited DNA)
- energy processing (the use of chemical energy to power an organism's activities and chemical reactions)
- regulation (an ability to control an organism's internal environment within limits that sustain life)
- response to the environment (all organisms respond to environmental stimuli)
- evolutionary adaptation (adaptations evolve over many generations as individuals with traits best suited to their environment have greater reproductive success and pass their traits to offspring)
Levels of Organization (heirarchy of organization)
- biosphere (all of the environments on Earth that support life)
- ecosystem (all the organisms living in a particular area and the physical components with which the organisms interact)
- community (the entire array of organisms living in a particular ecosystem)
- population (all the individuals of a species living in a specific function)
- organism (an individual living thing)
- organ system (several organs that cooperate in a specific function)
- organ (a structure that is composed of tissues)
- tissue (a group of similar cells that perform a specific function)
- cell (the fundamental unit of life)
- organelle (a membrane enclosed structure that performs a specific function within a cell)
- molecule (a cluster of small chemical units called atoms held together by chemical bonds)
- all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment
- plants are the producers that provide food, consumers eat plants and other animals, decomposers act as recyclers, changing complex matter into simpler chemicals that plants can absorb and use
- dynamics of ecosystems: recycling of chemical nutrients and the one way flow of energy
- the scientific study of heredity
- DNA is the chemical substance of genes
- genes are inherited from parent to offspring
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
- species living today arose from a successor of ancestors that differed from them (descent with modification)
- a process in which individuals with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals that do not have those traits (natural selection)
- observation 1: (individual variation) individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which are inherited from parents to offspring
- observation 2: (overproduction of offspring) all species can produce far more offspring than the environment can support; competition for resources is thus inevitable and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce
- inference 1: (unequal reproductive success) individuals with heritable traits best suited to the local environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than are less well suited individuals
- inference 2: (accumulation of favorable traits over time) as a result of this unequal reproductive success over many generations, a higher and higher proportion of individuals in the population will have the advantageous traits
Control in a experiment - controlled experiment
- a experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
- two groups differ only in the one factor the experiment is designed to test
Most common elements found in living organisms
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up about 96% of all living matter
Parts of an atom and their location
- nucleus: an atom's central core
- proton: single positive electrical charge and located inside the nucleus
- neutron: electrically neutral (no charge) and located inside the nucleus
- electron: single negative charge and located outside of the nucleus
- the number of protons in a particular element
- the total mass of an atom
- atomic mass equals the mass number when given as a whole number
- a level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus of an atom
- depending on an element's atomic number, an atom may have one, two, or more electron shells
- within each shell, electrons travel in different orbitals
- each orbital can hold two electrons
- first electron shell has one orbital
- second and third electron shell has four orbitals
- a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
- sharing electrons enables atoms to complete their outer shells
- the atoms held together form a molecule
- a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
- resulting compound is electrically neutral
- ion: an atom/molecule with an electrical charge resulting from a gain or loss of electrons (electron loss = positive charge; electron gain = negative charge)
- salt is a synonym
Properties of Water
- cohesion: tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together; trees depend on cohesion to help transport water and nutrients from their roots to their leaves
- adhesion: clinging of one substance to another; attraction between different kinds of molecules; the adhesion of water to the cell walls of a plant's thin veins helps counter the downward pull of gravity
- solid/liquid density: water exists in three forms (gas, liquid, and solid); water is less dense as a solid than a liquid due to hydrogen bonds
- moderate temperature: thermal energy is the energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules; temperature measures the intensity of heat; because water makes up about 6% of your body weight, it also helps moderate your temperature
- solvent: the dissolving agent is the solvent; a substance that is dissolved is a solute; an aqueous solution is one which water is the solvent; water is the solvent of life
A solution in which water is the solvent
Properties of carbon
- carbon can form up to 4 bonds because of 4 valence electrons
- can bond in length, double bonds, branches, and rings.
- carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large and complex molecules which build the structures and carry out the functions required for life
- carbon based molecules are called organic compounds
- lead players in the chemistry of life
- carbon chains form the backbone of most organic molecules
Functional groups of organic molecules
- a specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions
- they are polar groups which make compounds containing them hydrophilic (water loving) and soluble in water
- hydroxyl group: a chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom which is bonded to the carbon skeleton
- carbonyl group: a chemical group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen bond; if the group is at the end of a carbon skeleton, the compound is called an aldehyde; if it is within the chain, the compound is called a ketone
- caboxyl group: a chemical group consisting of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group; acts as an acid by contributing an hydrogen ion to a solution and thus becoming ionized
- amino group: a chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton; organic compounds with this group are called amines; the building blocks of proteins (amino acid) contain an amino and a carboxyl group
- phosphate group: a chemical group consisting of a phosphorous atom bonded to four oxygen atoms; usually ionized and attached to the carbon skeleton by one of its oxygen atoms; compounds with this group are called organic phosphates and involved in energy transfers
- a macromolecule, usually a protein
- serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction
- lowers activation energy
- a giant molecule form by the joining of smaller molecules
- usually by a dehydration reaction
- a protein, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids
- large molecules made by chains of monomers.
- carbohydrates: source of energy for the body. --
- monomer is monosaccharide
- lipids: x2 energy that carbs; cushions body, protects bones and organs, preserves heat, and stores energy; not tehcnically a macromolecule. -
- made of glycerol and fatty acids
- proteins: most elaborate; helps all types of functions and gives body structure; building block are amino acids
- nucleic acids: gives instructions to carry out processes; DNA carries genetic information; building block is nucleic acids.
Scanning Electrom Microscope (SEM)
- a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface details of a cell or other specimens
- beam excites electrons on the surface and these electrons are then detected by device that translates their pattern into an image projected onto a video screen
- large cells have more surface area than small cells, but they have a much smaller surface area relative to their volume than small cells
- plant and animals are in the range of 100 micrometers to 10 micrometers
- most bacteria are 10 micrometers to 1 mircrometer in size.
- cell size is limited by surface area; cells need enough surface area to support the process in the cell
- multiple small cells have more surface area than one big cell of the same volume
- one of the two prokaryotic of life
- no membrane bound organelle
- free floating DNA
- sticky capsule that helps them stick
- flagella: helps them move
- cell wall: protect and maintain shape; made of cellulose
- plasmmodesmata: cytoplasmic channels through cell walls that connect adjacent cells
- chloroplasts: photosnthesis
- a large central vacuole: stores water and a variety of chemicals
- rigid cell wall: protect and maintain shape
- membrane bound organelle
- nucleus: stores genetic information
- few sperm cells have flagella
- lysosomes and centrosomes
- some have flagella or cilia
- thick cell wall
Properties of Cells
- plasma membranes regulate the transport of materials in/out of the cell and protects interior from surroundings
- the can divide
- all cells have ribosomes to make protiens
- all cells have cytoplasm.
Fluid Mosaic Model
Most accepted model of a cell membrane. Diverse proteins are suspended in a fluid phosolipid bilyaer
Composition of a cell membrane
Consists of a phospholipid bilayer with diverse proteins embedded into it.
Passive transport that allows substances to move down its conentration gradient from more concentrated to less concentrated. Will diffuse until equilibrium is reached.
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. If solutes cannot pass, water will build up on one side until solute concentrations are equal.
Diffusion assisted by transport proteins. (e.g. aquaporin that allows quick diffusion of water)
Kinetic energy vs. potential energy vs. chemical energy
Kinetic - Energy associated with the motion of matter. Thermal energy is a type of kinetic energy. Transfer of thermal is heat.
Potential - Energy that results upon location or structure.
Chemical - Type of PE in chemical bonds that is availabe for release in a chemical reaction
Series of chemical reactions that build a complex molecule or will break a big molecule into smaller ones. Cellular respiration is an example. Sugar is broken down.
The consumption of oxygen and the breaking odwn of glucose in order to create carbon dioxide, water, and release energy. C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + Heat
Oxidation - Reduction Reactions
Redox reactions for short. Involves the transfer of electrons.
Oxidation - Loss of electron
Reduction - Addition of electron
Always happens together
Stages of cellular respiration
Stage #1: Glycolysis occurs in cytosol. Breaks down glucose into pyruvate. Produces 2 net ATP
Stage #2: Citric Acid cycl takes place in mitchondria. Cyclic reactions that breaks down glucose into carbon dioxide. Produces NADH and FADH2. Yeilds 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2
Stage #3: Oxidative Phosphorylation involves electon transport chains and chemiosmosis. Electron carriers shuttle electron down chain. Energy is released as it travels down. That energy is used to make ATP. Most ATP is produced from oxidative phosphorylation.
Total Yeild is 32 ATP, net yeild is 28 ATP
End products of the citric acid cycle
2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2. Energy-rich molecules.
Pyruvate oxidation uses it. Pyruvate is link to coenzyme A to make actetyl CoA. 2 molecules of acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle to initiate it
Anaerobic harvesting of energy
Lactic Acid fermentation allows muscle cells and some bacteria to regenerate NAD+ by reducing pyruvate to lactate
Alcohol fermentation allows yeast to produce alcohol if there is no oxygen. Produced ethyl alcohol. Alcohol can kill the yeast if concentrations get too high
What is the function of the cholorplast?
Cite of photosynthesis
What is reduced and what is oxidized in photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
Cellular Respiration - Sugar is oxidized into C02, oxygen is reduced to water
Photosynthesis - CO2 is reduced to sugar, water is oxidized to oxygen
Where does the light reactions occur?
In the thylakoid membrane within a chloroplast.
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
In the stroma of a cholorplast.
What is happening during the light reaction?
Light energy is converted to chemical energy and oxygen gets released. Water is split to provide electrons and release oxygen. Light that is absorved by chlorophyll drives electron transfer from water to NADP+ which is reduced to NADPH.
What is the function of photons?
Photons have fixed quantities of energy. They give energy to the pigments in photosystems.
What are the reactants and products in photosynthesis?
Reactants - Water, Carbon Dioxide, light energy
Products - Sugar, Oxygen
6H2O + 6CO2 + Light energy ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What happens in the mitochodria?
What happens in the cholorplasts?
What are the similarites of cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
Both processes create materials for the cell to use. They both involve the usage of the electron transport chain to obtain energy in order to reduce electron carrier molecules. They both yeild energy-rich molecules.
How do C4, CAM, and C3 plants differ?
C3 plants fix three-carbon compounds. Hot, dry weather will decrease crop yield.
C4 plants fix four-carbon coumpounds that can help supply the plant with more CO2. This plant is more suited to hot, dry weather
CAM plants - Very adapted to dry climates. Conserves water by opening stomata and admitting carbon dioxide at night. CO2 is fixed into four-carbon compound that banks carbon at night. Calvin cycle can still occur because of that.
- the energy of ATP is used to power the processes of the cell
- energy is converted or transferred
- the oxygen that is released comes from the splitting of water during the light dependent reations
- 12H2O + 6CO2 --> C6H12O6 + 6H2O
- has two stages that are metabolic pathways
- plants convert light energy to chemical energy
Photosystem (Light dependent reaction)
cluster of pigment molecules groups in the thylakoid membrane
Photosystem II (light dependent reaction)
light energy (photons) excites electrons; electrons leave chlorophyll a molecules; oxidation occurs
Light Dependent Reaction
needs sunlight; products are O2, NADPH, ATP; occurs in thylakoid
Electron transport chain
uses energy to pump protons (hydrogen ions) across the thylakoid membrane into the thylakoid
light energy absorbed; replaces the electron lost from Photosystem II; different electron transport chain
Light Independent Reaction
- Calvin Cycle; dark reaction; product is carbohydrates; occurs in stroma
- Stage 1: CO2 combines with RuBP; splits into 2 3-C PGA
- Stage 2: PGA --> PGAL; gets a P from ATP and an H from NADPH; ADP, NADP+ and a phosphate are recycled and used again
- Stage 3: some PGAL is converted back to RuBP; some PGAL into organic compounds
- 3 turns of Calvin Cycle to change CO2 to PGAL
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