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BioX Final Review: Chapters 1-7
Terms in this set (52)
Characteristics of life (properties of life)
order, reproduction, growth and development, energy processing, regulation, and evolutionary adaptation
Levels of organization (hierarchy of organization)
biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle, molecule
consists of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as the physical components with which the organisms interact such as air, soil, water, and sunlight
All cells have DNA, and the continuity of life depends on this universal genetic material
Darwin's theory of natural selection
Individual variation, overproduction to offspring, unequal reproductive success, accumulation of favorable traits over time
Control in an experiment (controlled experiment)
an experiment designed to compare an experimental group with a control group, and differ only in the factor the experiment is designed to test
Most common elements in living organisms
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
Parts/location of an atom
consist of protons, neutrons, electrons, and are located everywhere around us (make up everything)
all atoms of a particular element have the same unique number of protons
atom's weight is approximately equal to its mass number; the sum of its protons and neutrons in daltons
a level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus of an atom
a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
Properties of water
gas (water vapor), liquid, and solid
in which water is the solvent
Properties of carbon
carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large and complex molecules, which build the structures and carry out the functions required for life
Functional groups of organic molecules
Hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, carboxyl group, amino group, phosphate group, methyl group
a macromolecule, usually a protein, that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction
a giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction: a protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
a microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface details of a cell or other specimens
most cells are microscopic
one of the two prokaryotic domains of life, the other being Archaea
lack the cell walls that provide strong support in the bodies of plants and fungi
have a two-part cell wall ; are diverse in structure and function
Properties of cells
a plasma membrane surrounds all cells and forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings
Fluid Mosaic Model
the currently accepted model of a cell membrane structure, depicting the membrane as a mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer of phospholipid molecules
Composition of a cell membrane
plasma membrane is very thin; its structure correlates with its function
the random movement of particles that results in the net movement of a substance down its concentration gradient from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated
the diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane
the passage of a substance through a specific transport protein across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient
the energy associated with the motion of objects; moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter
the energy that matter possesses because of its location or spatial arrangement
energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy
a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds
the aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; includes glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidation (redox reactions)
the loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies reduction
Stages of cellular respiration
glycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
End products of citric acid cycle
makes one ATP molecule, three NADH molecules, and one FADH2
a coenzyme, known for synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids and oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle
a way of harvesting chemical energy that does not require oxygen
What is the function of the chloroplast?
Chloroplasts are organelles that carries out complex and multistep processes.
What is reduced and what is oxidized in photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is a redox process. CO2 is reduced to sugar as electrons and hydrogen ions (H+) from water are added to it. Water molecules are oxidized and lose electrons, along with hydrogen ions.
What is reduced and what is oxidized in cellular respiration?
Cellular respiration is a redox process. It harvests energy stored in a glucose molecule by oxidizing the sugar and reducing O2 to H2O. Electrons lose potential energy as they are passed down an electron transport chain to O2.
Where does light reactions occur?
Light reactions occur in the thylakoids.
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
What is happening during a light reaction?
During a light reaction, light reactions absorb solar energy and convert it to chemical energy stored in both ATP and NADPH.
What is the function of photons?
The function of a photon in the photosynthesis process is to deliver kinetic energy to atoms/ molecules on the surface of the plant.
What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and water are used with light energy to produce glucose sugar and oxygen gas.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
What happens in the mitochondria?
Mitochondria carries out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells, converting the chemical energy of foods such as sugars to the chemical energy of the molecule called ATP.
What happens in the chloroplasts?
Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy.
What are similarities of cellular respiration and photosynthesis?
Both are redox processes that both create and consume water, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Plants obtain carbon dioxide they need to live. They are both necessary to the energy exchange that living things need to survive.
How do C4, CAM, and C3 plants differ?
C3 is a three carbon-compound and is a one-stage process. Takes place in the chloroplast organelles.
C4 is a four-carbon compound and is a two-stage process. Takes place in the chloroplast of a thin-walled mesophyll cell.
CAM plants is a type of photosynthesis that absorbs sunlight energy during the day, then uses the energy to fix carbon dioxide during the night.
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