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79 terms

mbfinallabexam

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Saccharomyces
this genus ferments barley grains to produce beer and grape juice under anaerobic conditions
Bacillus thuringiensis
this spore is used in the live form as insecticides for plants
Bioremediation
this process involves naturally growing microorganisms to grow in a polluted environment and break down the pollutants
genetic engineering and plasmid technology
the future of industrial microbiology by inserting foreign genes into vector organisms that can produce rare proteins on an industrial scale and provide treatments for diseases
Coliform bacteria
the gram-negative rods of human and animal intestinal tracts, abound in polluted water
unpolluted water environment
environment that is inhabited by limited numbers of soil bacteria
polluted water environment
environment that contains an enormous variety of heterotrophic organisms from sewage, feces, and industrial sources
marine environment
environment that has halophilic, psychrophilic, and barophilic organisms
biological pollution
the primary interest to the water microbiologists of the three types of pollution
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
a measure of the amount of biological pollution.
water purification
sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination
sewage treatment
cesspools, septic tanks, oxidation lagoons
biofilms
where as much as 99% of microbial activities in nature may occur; can also cause disease and be quite resistant to chemicals and antibiotics
bacteriological tests to test the effectiveness of purification process
membrane-filter technique, standard plate count, and the most probable number test
prophatase test
determines whether phosphatase (enzyme normally destroyed during pasteurization) is present
reductase test
estimates the number of bacterial cells in milk
standard plate count
determines the total number of viable bacterial cells per ml of milk
test for coliforms
determines the number of viable coliform bacteria per ml of milk
test for pathogens
detects the presence of pathogens
Ehrlich
he saw antibiotics as a chemotherapeutic approach to alleviating disease
Fleming
he discovered penicillin
Florey and Chain
they purified and prepared penicillin for chemotherapy
sulfonamides
this synthetic antibacterial agent interferes with the production of folic acid through competitive inhibition
isoniazid and ethambutol
these synthetic antibacterial agents are antituberculosis drugs affecting wall synthesis
ciprofloxacin
a fluoroquinolone that interacts with DNA to inhibit replication
penicillin
this antibiotic interferes will wall synthesis in gram-positive bacterial cells; it can cause ananaphylactic reaction in sensitive individuals
cephalosporin drugs
first-choice antibiotics for penicillin-resistant bacterial species
carbapenems
inhibit cell wall synthesis and are broad spectrum drugs and are broad spectrum drugs
vancomycin
inhibits cell wall synthesis, while bacitracin and polymyxin B affect the permeability of the cell membrane
aminoglycosides
inhibit protein synthesis in gram-negative bacterial cells
chloraphenicol
a broad-spectrum antibiotic used against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
The macrolides, clindamycin, streptogramins
inhibit protein synthesis, while rifampin blocks DNA transcription
praziquantel, mebendaz, and avermectins
antihelminthic drugs
aminoquinolines
antiprotozoal agents used to treat malaria
polyenes and imidazo
valuable against fungal infections
antibiotic assays
measures the minimal inhibitory concentration, and the agar disk diffusion method
Types of synthetic antibacterial agents
sulfonamides, isoniazid, and ethambutol
Beta-Lactam family of antibiotics
penicillin, cephalosporin drugs, carbapenems
Bacterially produced antibiotics
vancomycin, aminoglycosides, chloraphenicol, The macrolides, clindamycin, streptogramins
Antifungal and antiparasitic agents
polyenes and imidazo, aminoquinoquinolines, praziquantel, mebendaz, and avermectins
Site: Eyes
Genera: staphylococcus, streptococcus
Site: Skin
Genera: Corynebacterium, propionibacterium, staphylococcus, micrococcus, candida
Site: Oral Cavity
Genera: Streptococcus, treponema, neisseria, haemophilus, lactobacillus, staphylococcus, propionibacterium
Site: Digestive
Genera: heliobacter, lactobacillus, haemophilus, treponema, neisseria, bacteroides, streptococcus, escherichia, clostridium, enterococcus, shigella, candida, entamoeba, trichomonas
Site: Urinary
Genera: (female) lactobacillus, corynebacterium;
(male) corynebacterium, streptococcus
Site: Internal Tissues
Genera: NONE
Enzyme: Coagulase
Action: forms a fibrin clot
Effect: allows resistance to phagocytosis
Enzyme: Streptokinase
Action: dissolves a fibrin clot
Efffect: prevents isolation of infection
Enzyme: Hyaluronidase
Action: digests hyaluronic acid
Effect: allow tissue penetration
Enzyme: Leukocidin
Action: disintegrates phagocytes
Effect: limits phagocytosis
Enzyme: Hemolysins
Action: dissolves red blood cells
Effect: induces anemia and limits oxygen delivery
Exotoxins
Source: gram (+) and gram (-); Location: cytoplasm
Chemical Composition: protein; Antibodies Elicited: yes
Toxoid Conversion: possible; Toxin Liberation: prod. by the cell
Effects: Interferes with synaptic activity and protein synthesis, increases capillary permeability and water elimination
Endotoxins
Source: gram (-) ONLY; Location: cell wall
Chemical Composition: lipid-polysaccharide;
Antibodies Elicited: no; Toxoid Conversion: not possible;
Toxin Liberation: disintegration of the cell
Effects: Increases body temperature, hemorrhaging, and swelling in tissues, induces vomiting and diarrhea
Neutrophil
Appoximate %: 50-70
Eosinophil
Appoximate %: 2-4
Basophil & Mast Cell
Appoximate %: <1
Monocyte & Macrophage
Appoximate %: 2-8
Lymphocyte
Appoximate %: 20-30
Dendritic Cell
Appoximate %: --
Resistance Mechanism:Skin Layers
Activity: provide a protective covering to all external body tissues
Resistance Mechanism: Mucous membranes of body cavities
Activity: trap airborne particles in mucous
Resistance Mechanism: Acidity in the vagina & stomach
Activity: acidic pH toxic to pathogens
Resistance Mechanism: Bile
Activity: inhibitory to most pathogens
Resistance Mechanism: Duodenal enzymes
Activity: digest structural and metabolic chemical components of microorganisms
Resistance Mechanism: Defensins
Activity: disrupt microbial membranes
Resistance Mechanism: Lysozyme in tears, saliva, secretions
Activity: digests cell walls of gram (+) cells
Resistance Mechanism: Interferons
Activity: inhibit replication of viruses
Resistance Mechanism: Normal microbiota
Activity: compete for nutrients & attachment sites; produce antimicrobial substances
Diseases caused by bacteria
Cholera, Typhoid, Plague, Tuberculosis, Meningitis, Pneumococcal Pneuomina, Pertussis, Anthrax, Diptheria, Tetanus, and Botulism
Diseases caused by viruses
Polio, Rabies, Influenza, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Measles, Mumps, Smallpox, Rubella, Chickenpox, Yellow Fever
Disorder: Thrombocytopenia
Target Tissue: Thombocytes
Effect: Impaired blood clotting, hemorrhages
Disorder: Agranulocytosis
Target: Neutrophils
Effect: Reduced phagocytosis
Disorder: Goodpasture syndrome
Target: Kidneys
Effect: Kidney failure
Disorder: Myasthenia gravis
Target: Thyroid gland
Effect: Loss of muscle activity
Disorder: Graves disease
Target: Thyroid gland
Effect: Abundant thyroxine, high metabolic rate
Disorder: Hashimoto disease
Target: Thyroid gland
Effect: Thyroxine deficiency, low metabolic rate
Disorder: Type I diabetes
Target: Beta cells of pancreas
Effect: Inability to produce insulin
Disorder: Systematic lupus erythematosus
Target: Skin, heart, kidney, blood vessels
Effect: Butterfly rash, skin rash, heart and kidney failure
Disorder: Rheumatoid arthritis
Target: Joints
Effect: Swollen Joints

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