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this genus ferments barley grains to produce beer and grape juice under anaerobic conditions

Bacillus thuringiensis

this spore is used in the live form as insecticides for plants


this process involves naturally growing microorganisms to grow in a polluted environment and break down the pollutants

genetic engineering and plasmid technology

the future of industrial microbiology by inserting foreign genes into vector organisms that can produce rare proteins on an industrial scale and provide treatments for diseases

Coliform bacteria

the gram-negative rods of human and animal intestinal tracts, abound in polluted water

unpolluted water environment

environment that is inhabited by limited numbers of soil bacteria

polluted water environment

environment that contains an enormous variety of heterotrophic organisms from sewage, feces, and industrial sources

marine environment

environment that has halophilic, psychrophilic, and barophilic organisms

biological pollution

the primary interest to the water microbiologists of the three types of pollution

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

a measure of the amount of biological pollution.

water purification

sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination

sewage treatment

cesspools, septic tanks, oxidation lagoons


where as much as 99% of microbial activities in nature may occur; can also cause disease and be quite resistant to chemicals and antibiotics

bacteriological tests to test the effectiveness of purification process

membrane-filter technique, standard plate count, and the most probable number test

prophatase test

determines whether phosphatase (enzyme normally destroyed during pasteurization) is present

reductase test

estimates the number of bacterial cells in milk

standard plate count

determines the total number of viable bacterial cells per ml of milk

test for coliforms

determines the number of viable coliform bacteria per ml of milk

test for pathogens

detects the presence of pathogens


he saw antibiotics as a chemotherapeutic approach to alleviating disease


he discovered penicillin

Florey and Chain

they purified and prepared penicillin for chemotherapy


this synthetic antibacterial agent interferes with the production of folic acid through competitive inhibition

isoniazid and ethambutol

these synthetic antibacterial agents are antituberculosis drugs affecting wall synthesis


a fluoroquinolone that interacts with DNA to inhibit replication


this antibiotic interferes will wall synthesis in gram-positive bacterial cells; it can cause ananaphylactic reaction in sensitive individuals

cephalosporin drugs

first-choice antibiotics for penicillin-resistant bacterial species


inhibit cell wall synthesis and are broad spectrum drugs and are broad spectrum drugs


inhibits cell wall synthesis, while bacitracin and polymyxin B affect the permeability of the cell membrane


inhibit protein synthesis in gram-negative bacterial cells


a broad-spectrum antibiotic used against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

The macrolides, clindamycin, streptogramins

inhibit protein synthesis, while rifampin blocks DNA transcription

praziquantel, mebendaz, and avermectins

antihelminthic drugs


antiprotozoal agents used to treat malaria

polyenes and imidazo

valuable against fungal infections

antibiotic assays

measures the minimal inhibitory concentration, and the agar disk diffusion method

Types of synthetic antibacterial agents

sulfonamides, isoniazid, and ethambutol

Beta-Lactam family of antibiotics

penicillin, cephalosporin drugs, carbapenems

Bacterially produced antibiotics

vancomycin, aminoglycosides, chloraphenicol, The macrolides, clindamycin, streptogramins

Antifungal and antiparasitic agents

polyenes and imidazo, aminoquinoquinolines, praziquantel, mebendaz, and avermectins

Site: Eyes

Genera: staphylococcus, streptococcus

Site: Skin

Genera: Corynebacterium, propionibacterium, staphylococcus, micrococcus, candida

Site: Oral Cavity

Genera: Streptococcus, treponema, neisseria, haemophilus, lactobacillus, staphylococcus, propionibacterium

Site: Digestive

Genera: heliobacter, lactobacillus, haemophilus, treponema, neisseria, bacteroides, streptococcus, escherichia, clostridium, enterococcus, shigella, candida, entamoeba, trichomonas

Site: Urinary

Genera: (female) lactobacillus, corynebacterium;
(male) corynebacterium, streptococcus

Site: Internal Tissues

Genera: NONE

Enzyme: Coagulase

Action: forms a fibrin clot
Effect: allows resistance to phagocytosis

Enzyme: Streptokinase

Action: dissolves a fibrin clot
Efffect: prevents isolation of infection

Enzyme: Hyaluronidase

Action: digests hyaluronic acid
Effect: allow tissue penetration

Enzyme: Leukocidin

Action: disintegrates phagocytes
Effect: limits phagocytosis

Enzyme: Hemolysins

Action: dissolves red blood cells
Effect: induces anemia and limits oxygen delivery


Source: gram (+) and gram (-); Location: cytoplasm
Chemical Composition: protein; Antibodies Elicited: yes
Toxoid Conversion: possible; Toxin Liberation: prod. by the cell
Effects: Interferes with synaptic activity and protein synthesis, increases capillary permeability and water elimination


Source: gram (-) ONLY; Location: cell wall
Chemical Composition: lipid-polysaccharide;
Antibodies Elicited: no; Toxoid Conversion: not possible;
Toxin Liberation: disintegration of the cell
Effects: Increases body temperature, hemorrhaging, and swelling in tissues, induces vomiting and diarrhea


Appoximate %: 50-70


Appoximate %: 2-4

Basophil & Mast Cell

Appoximate %: <1

Monocyte & Macrophage

Appoximate %: 2-8


Appoximate %: 20-30

Dendritic Cell

Appoximate %: --

Resistance Mechanism:Skin Layers

Activity: provide a protective covering to all external body tissues

Resistance Mechanism: Mucous membranes of body cavities

Activity: trap airborne particles in mucous

Resistance Mechanism: Acidity in the vagina & stomach

Activity: acidic pH toxic to pathogens

Resistance Mechanism: Bile

Activity: inhibitory to most pathogens

Resistance Mechanism: Duodenal enzymes

Activity: digest structural and metabolic chemical components of microorganisms

Resistance Mechanism: Defensins

Activity: disrupt microbial membranes

Resistance Mechanism: Lysozyme in tears, saliva, secretions

Activity: digests cell walls of gram (+) cells

Resistance Mechanism: Interferons

Activity: inhibit replication of viruses

Resistance Mechanism: Normal microbiota

Activity: compete for nutrients & attachment sites; produce antimicrobial substances

Diseases caused by bacteria

Cholera, Typhoid, Plague, Tuberculosis, Meningitis, Pneumococcal Pneuomina, Pertussis, Anthrax, Diptheria, Tetanus, and Botulism

Diseases caused by viruses

Polio, Rabies, Influenza, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Measles, Mumps, Smallpox, Rubella, Chickenpox, Yellow Fever

Disorder: Thrombocytopenia

Target Tissue: Thombocytes
Effect: Impaired blood clotting, hemorrhages

Disorder: Agranulocytosis

Target: Neutrophils
Effect: Reduced phagocytosis

Disorder: Goodpasture syndrome

Target: Kidneys
Effect: Kidney failure

Disorder: Myasthenia gravis

Target: Thyroid gland
Effect: Loss of muscle activity

Disorder: Graves disease

Target: Thyroid gland
Effect: Abundant thyroxine, high metabolic rate

Disorder: Hashimoto disease

Target: Thyroid gland
Effect: Thyroxine deficiency, low metabolic rate

Disorder: Type I diabetes

Target: Beta cells of pancreas
Effect: Inability to produce insulin

Disorder: Systematic lupus erythematosus

Target: Skin, heart, kidney, blood vessels
Effect: Butterfly rash, skin rash, heart and kidney failure

Disorder: Rheumatoid arthritis

Target: Joints
Effect: Swollen Joints

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