27 terms

IGCSE Geography Industry

Key terms and definitions for the IGCSE industry unit
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primary industry
taking from the sea or land e.g. mining, farming, fishing, forestry
secondary industry
making something from raw materials (manufacturing)
tertiary industry
providing services e.g teaching, banking, retailing
raw materials
the resources needed for manufacturing a product (metals, minerals, wood, oil etc)
labour
the physical and mental efforts by people/workers
capital
money (an important human factor)
labour intensive
industries relying mainly on workers to complete the processes
capital intensive
industries relying mainly on machines and money to complete the processes
infrastructure
the key facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area that are necessary for its economy to function (roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications)
physical locational factors
natural factors such as flat land and climate,
human location factors
man made factors such as transport routes, labour, access to markets etc
processes
the tasks that need completing to produce a product/service
outputs
the finished product and any waste (air pollution, heat, unused parts of the raw materials etc)
industrial agglomeration
the clustering together of economic activities.
industrial estate
also known as industrial parks.
Bangalore
India's high-tech city. (Silicon valley of India)
NIC
Newly Industrialised country e.g. India and China.
Heavy Industry
Uses large amounts of bulky raw materials e.g. Iron and steel.
Assembly industry
Put together parts and components that have been made elsewhere e.g a car assembly plant.
Silicon Valley
The first high-tech cluster.
High-tech
companies that make or use silicon chips, computers etc.
Apple
The most successful company in 2015. (profit)
Deindustrialisation
this has happened in HICS because industry has shifted to NICs such as China
TNC
Trans National Corporation (a company that works in more than 1 country)
Footloose industries
industries that are not tied to certain areas because of energy requirement or other factors.
By-product
something that is left over from the main production process which has some value and therefore can be sold.
Greenfield location
an area of agricultural land or some other undeveloped site that is a potential location for commercial development or industrial projects but has not yet been developed. Such sites are normally on the edge of town and have good transport links.

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