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44 terms

Science Chapter 4 Vocab Words

the science words for chapter 4 astronomy on stars
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telescope
device that makes distant objects appear to be closer
electromagnetic radiation
energy that can travel through space in the form of waves
visible light
light you can see
wavelength
the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave
spectrum
a range of different colors with different wave lengths that you see coming out of a prism with light shone through it
optical telescope
a telescope that uses lenses or mirrors to collect and focus visible light
refracting telescope
uses convex lenses to gather and focus light
convex lens
piece of transparent glass curved so that the middle is thicker than the edges
reflecting telescope
uses a curved mirror to collect and focus light
radio telescope
devices used to detect radio waves from objects in space
observatory
building that contains one more telescopes
constellation
imaginary patterns of stars
spectrograph
device that breaks light into colors and produces an image of the resulting spectrum
apparent brightness
a star's brightness seen from earth
absolute brightness
a star's brightness the star would have if it were at a standard distance from earth
light-year
distance that light travels in one year
parallax
apparent change in position of an object when you look at it from different places
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
the graph astronomers made to find out if the temperature and absolute brightness of a star are related
main sequence
where most of the stars in the H-R diagram are, the diagonal area
nebula
large cloud of gas and dust spread out in an immense volume
protostar
contracting cloud of gas and dust with enough mass to form a star
white dwarf
blue-white core of the star that is left behind that cools
supernova
the explosion when a star runs out of fuel
neutron star
remains of high-mass stars
pulsar
spinning neutron stars, short for pulsating radio sources
black hole
an object with gravity so strong that nothing, not even light can escape
binary star
star systems that have two stars
eclipsing binary
system in which one star periodically blocks the light from another
open cluster
have a loose, disorganized appearance and contain no more than a few thousand stars
globular cluster
large groupings of older stars
galaxy
huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
spiral galaxy
galaxy with a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral outward like pinwheels
elliptical galaxy
galaxies that look like round or flattened balls
irregular galaxy
galaxies without regular shapes
quasar
active young galaxies with giant black holes in the middle
universe
all of space and everything in it
scientific notation
uses powers of ten to write very large or very small numbers in shorter form
big bang
what the universe exploding is called
Hubble's Law
states that the father away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us
cosmic background radiation
leftover thermal energy from the big bang
solar nebula
a large cloud of gas and dust such as the one that formed solar system
planetesimal
small asteroid like bodies
dark matter
matter that does not give off electromagnetic radiation
dark energy
a mysterious new force that astronomers infer is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate