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a representation (drawing or 3D) of an object, law, theory or event used as a tool for understanding the natural world; all have limitations
chemical process that occurs in living organisms such as protein synthesis, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, etc.
specifically designed to build or operate a component of a living cell (ex. human insulin & hemoglobin)
a characteristic of an organism that is determined by protein structure & function (ex. hitchhiker's thumb)
DNA vs. RNA
deoxyribose sugar vs. ribose sugar, thymine vs. uracil , double strand vs. single strand
messenger RNA (mRNA)
type of RNA that carries a copy of the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes
template strand (in transcription)
the DNA strand that is used as the code to "build" a complementary strand of mRNA
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
type of RNA that makes up ribosomes and aids in translating mRNA into a protein
point mutation in which one nitrogeneous base (nucleotide) is changed to another
a way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets
mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message; includes insertions and deletions
mutation that does not result in a change to the amino acid sequence of a protein; also called neutral
significance of gene mutations
can be neutral with no effect, harmful by producing defective proteins/traits, or beneficial by increasing chance of survival
the multi-step process of turning the code of a gene into its final product (most often a protein)
a process where a cell determines which genes it will express and not express; turning genes "on and off"
The lac operon
example of gene regulation in bacteria when the lac gene is turn off or turned on to make an enzyme (protein) to break down lactose sugar
cells that can differentiate into a variety of specialized cells in multicellular organisms
the process directed by the DNA code for converting stem cells into more specialized cell types in multicellular organisms
cells with specific structures and functions (ex. blood cells, epithelial cells, sperm cells, guard cells, etc.)
role of DNA in cell differentiation
holds the code that determines which traits (proteins) will be expressed to make a cell specialized
role of RNA in cell differentiation
carries the code from DNA and helps assemble the proteins that make cells become specialized
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