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Protein Synthesis & Gene Mutations

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model
a representation (drawing or 3D) of an object, law, theory or event used as a tool for understanding the natural world; all have limitations
biochemical process
chemical process that occurs in living organisms such as protein synthesis, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, etc.
synthesis
to make
protein synthesis
to make a polypeptide (protein) through transcription and translation
amino acid
monomer, or building block, of a polypeptide (protein)
polypeptide
chain of amino acids; a protein contains one or more of these
peptide bond
name of bond that holds amino acids together
protein
specifically designed to build or operate a component of a living cell (ex. human insulin & hemoglobin)
trait
a characteristic of an organism that is determined by protein structure & function (ex. hitchhiker's thumb)
gene
section of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
DNA vs. RNA
deoxyribose sugar vs. ribose sugar, thymine vs. uracil , double strand vs. single strand
uracil
nitrogenous base specific to RNA in place of thymine (A-U)
transcription
process where a part of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of messenger RNA
messenger RNA (mRNA)
type of RNA that carries a copy of the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes
template strand (in transcription)
the DNA strand that is used as the code to "build" a complementary strand of mRNA
RNA polymerase
enzyme that assembles the mRNA complementary strand by joining ribonucleotides
ribonucleotide
nucleotide that has ribose as the sugar; monomer of RNA
codon
three-nucleotide base sequence (triplet) on DNA and mRNA that codes for a single amino acid
location of transcription in eukaryotes
nucleus
location of transcription in prokaryotes (bacteria)
cytoplasm
translation
decoding of a mRNA sequence into a polypeptide chain / protein
location of translation in ALL cells
at the ribosomes
transfer RNA (tRNA)
type of RNA that transfers the amino acids to the ribosome
location of "free-floating" amino acids
cytoplasm
anti-codon
three-nucleotide base sequence (triplet) on tRNA that codes for an amino acid
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
type of RNA that makes up ribosomes and aids in translating mRNA into a protein
genetic code (mRNA codon chart)
the 4-letter code; always use the chart reading the mRNA strand
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
gene mutation
mutations that produce changes in a gene as opposed to changes in whole chromosomes
point mutation
mutation involving change in one nucleotide; example is a substitution
substitution mutation
point mutation in which one nitrogeneous base (nucleotide) is changed to another
reading frame
a way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets
frame-shift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message; includes insertions and deletions
insertion mutation
frame-shift mutation where a nucleotide is added to the genetic material
deletion mutation
frame-shift mutation where a nucleotide is deleted from the genetic material
silent mutation
mutation that does not result in a change to the amino acid sequence of a protein; also called neutral
significance
importance
significance of gene mutations
can be neutral with no effect, harmful by producing defective proteins/traits, or beneficial by increasing chance of survival
gene expression
the multi-step process of turning the code of a gene into its final product (most often a protein)
promoter
region of DNA that indicates to RNA polymerase where to bind in order to make RNA
introns
parts of DNA that do NOT code for a protein; get "cut" out of mRNA
exons
parts of DNA that do code for a protein; get left in mRNA
gene regulation
a process where a cell determines which genes it will express and not express; turning genes "on and off"
The lac operon
example of gene regulation in bacteria when the lac gene is turn off or turned on to make an enzyme (protein) to break down lactose sugar
stem cells
cells that can differentiate into a variety of specialized cells in multicellular organisms
cell differentiation
the process directed by the DNA code for converting stem cells into more specialized cell types in multicellular organisms
specialized cells
cells with specific structures and functions (ex. blood cells, epithelial cells, sperm cells, guard cells, etc.)
role of DNA in cell differentiation
holds the code that determines which traits (proteins) will be expressed to make a cell specialized
role of RNA in cell differentiation
carries the code from DNA and helps assemble the proteins that make cells become specialized
role of environmental factors in cell differentiation
radiation, toxic chemicals, temperature, nutrition, etc. can alter gene expression and cell differentiation