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BCS, Holt Science and Technology Earth Science Chapter 9: Volcanoes
This is a Study Guide for Holt Science and Technology Earth Science Chapter 9. Hope this Helps! L & A Weston
Terms in this set (46)
a fissure in the earth's crust through which molten lava and gases pass
Liquid magma that flows onto the earth's surface from a vent in the volcano.
These types of eruptions produce relatively calm flows of lava. Nonexplosive eruptions are the most common type of eruption. They produce mostly lava.
Very rare and are incredibly destructive eruptions. Molten rock and ash are blown out of the volcano with large force.
They produce mostly Pyroclastic material.
Dust-sized particles made from exploded molten rock
The body of molten rock underground that feeds a volcano
An opening at the surface of the Earth through which volcanic material passes
Magma with High water content and
Magma with High Silica Content
2 things that cause Explosive Eruptions
Magma with High Water content
Causes gases to expand rapidly and causes an explosive eruption
Magma with High Silica content
Caused the magma to flow slowly out of the volcano and it hardens and plugs up the vents, after a while pressure builds up and and explosive eruption occurs
solid form of lava
Lava or Pyroclastic material
Magma erupts in 2 forms, what are they?
forms when magma is blasted into the air and hardens
Aa, Panhehoe, Pillow & Blocky Lava
4 types of Lava?
Lava that pours out quickly and forms a brittle crust
Lava that flows slowly, its surface glassy and has round wrinkles.
Lava that forms when lava erupts underwater. It forms rounded lumps.
Cool, stiff lava that doesn't travel far from the erupting vent.. The lava forms jumbled heaps of sharp edged chunks. It doesn't travel far from the vent.
Volcanic bombs, Volcanic Blocks, Lapilli, and Volcanic Ash
4 types of Pyroclastic Material?
Large blobs of magma that harden in the air.
The largest pieces of pyroclastic material and are pieces of solid rock erupted from a volcano.
Means little stones in Italian. They are pebble like bits of magma that hardened before hitting the ground
Forms when gases in stiff magma expand rapidly and the walls of the gas bubbles explode into tiny, glass like slivers. Ash makes up most of the pyroclastic material in an eruption.
Produced when enormous amounts of hot ash, dust, and gases are ejected from a volcano and becomes a cloud that can move downhill at 200km/h and can be about 700*C
Shield, Cinder Cone and Comosite Volcanoes
3 Basic types of Volcanoes?
Built of layers of lava released repeatedly from a nonexplosive eruption. The lava is runny and forms a gentle sloping sides to the volcano.
Cinder Cone Volcanoes
Built of pyroclastic material, usually produced from moderately explosive material. The volcanoes are small and ususally erupt for a short time, they form steep slopes.
Most common types of volcanoes. Form from explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material followed by quieter flows of lava. They have wide bases and get steeper towards the top.
Craters, Calderas and Lava Plateaus
3 Non-Volcano landforms produced by volcanic activity?
A funnel-shaped pit near the tip of the central vent of a volcano
A large, semicircular depression that forms when the magma chamber below a volcano partially empties and causes the ground above to sink
A wide, flat landform that results form repeated nonexplosive eruptions of lava that spread overa large area
Volcanoes form near tectonic plate boundaries and only a few occur away from them
Where do volcanoes form?
this is where 2 tectonic plates are pulling away from each other.
An area of deep cracks that forms between two tectonic plates that are pulling away from each other.
A long under sea mountain range that forms from lava that flows from undersea rift zones.
Where tectonic plates collide.
The movement of one tectonic plate under another tectonic plate.
A volcanically active area of Earth's surface far from a tectonic plate boundary.
Dormant, Active and Extinct Volcanoes
3 Classifications of Volcanic Activity?
Currently non-erupting volcanoes that show signs of past eruptions and eruptions that will happen in the future
Volcanoes that are currently erupting or show signs of erupting in the near future
Have not erupted in recorded history and probably never will erupt again.
Tool that helps scientists detect small changes in angles of volcano slopes.
Hot spots that are directly above columns of rising magma
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