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Terms in this set (130)
Who was Romulus?
Brother of Remus; ruler of Rome
Who was Remus?
Brother of Romulus; son of Mars and Rhea Silvea
Who was the She-Wolf?
The guardian of Romulus and Remus in their early years
In what ways is it symbolic that the father of Romulus and Remus is Mars, the god of war?
Romulus and Remus would always argue and fight, such as when they argued about who would be ruler over Rome
We're the brothers able to peacefully resolve their differences? Explain.
Romulus and Remus didn't peacefully resolve their differences only because Remus was being a sore loser and that made Romulus angry.
Where did the Etruscans settle?
Name 5 contributions that the Etruscans made to an Ancient Rome.
They built codes of law, encouraged art, became a powerful force, were hard and warlike, and specialized over seas.
Name 5 contributions that the Greeks made to Ancient Rome.
Art, literature, education, established colonies in Italy, and borrowed heavily from Greek religion and architecture.
Who were the Latins and where in Italy did they settle?
They were the original ancestors of the Romans. They settled along the Tiber River.
What was the major contribution of the Latins to Rome?
The latins developed a unified language for Rome.
How did the Romans benefit from having the Carthaginians as rivals?
The Romans won economic power
What physical feature allowed the Roman Empire to establish far flung trade routes?
Rivers and oceans
Name 4 physical features that allowed early cities to flourish.
Fresh water, good land, protection, and sea access
Define the term villa.
A large country house with great farmland; usually owned by the richer Romans.
To where did Rome look for additional food?
Egypt and Northern America.
What is a republic?
A government where the citizens elect their leaders.
In the Roman republic, who replaced kings?
The kings were replaced by two consuls.
Who had the right to vote?
Both patricians and plebeians, no women or slaves.
What were the Twelve Tablets and what where their significance?
The twelve tablets were laws. The patricians could no longer bend the rules.
After 200 years of struggle, what did the plebeians finally gain?
The gained equal rights.
What was the most powerful group in the Roman Republic?
The Patrician Senators
Who served as Consuls?
One plebeian and one patrician
Why was the limit imposed on the time a Consul could serve?
The time a Consul could serve was limited in case they were bad at their job.
Could one move easily between social classes in Rome? What were the means by which someone could "move up"?
No. It was hard to move between social classes in Rome. The only possible ways of moving up is by gaining wealth or marriage of a higher class
What enemy of Rome was a prosperous Phoenicia city?
The series of wars between Rome and Carthage was known as the what?
The Punic Wars
Rome had begun its era of what?
What did this city have to do all around the Mediterranean Sea?
What was the name of Hamilcar's (the Carthaginian general) son?
What was Hannibal's secret weapon against Roman armies?
What Roman General finally defeated Hannibal?
Roman leaders were almost always ready to go to war because Romans took great pride in and fiercely defended their what?
Rome was able to raise a large army by treating conquered peoples as what?
The Romans greatly valued what type of success?
To the Romans war was a great source of what?
In 73 BC what slave gathered an army of more than 100,000 fellow slaves who fought Rome for two years?
In 59BC which Roman general defeated the Gauls?
In 49 BC Caesar crossed wat river, prompting civil war in Italy?
Caesar defeated his rival, Pompey, in 46 BC, and declared himself what?
When Caesar made himself dictator for life, he ended what political system in Rome?
What is the difference between the Colosseum and the Circus Maximus?
The Colosseum is a battlefield and the Circus Maximus is for the chariot races.
Why was Julius Caesar popular with the majority of plebeians and soldiers?
Although he was rich, he fought for the poor. He gave the lower class citizens gifts, and the soldiers were given rich farmland
Why did the senate dislike Caesar?
Caesar was a threat to the Senators.
Why was Julius Caesar assassinated?
The people wanted to keep the government intact.
Did the assassination achieve its goal?
No. It destroyed the Roman Republic and became devided
Why did Gaius Octavius change his name to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus?
He wanted to impress his adopted father.
How does Octaviano choice to travel alone to Rome after Julius Caesar´s assassination prove this point?
He slowly befriended the senate
What did Brutus and Cassius, two of the plotters against Caesar, hope to achieve through the assassination? Why did they fail?
They hoped to save the Republic, but instead they worsened it.
Who was the first emperor of Rome?
With what was the Roman economy primarily concerned?
Feeding the vast number of citizens and soldiers
List two reasons why Roman farmers were not very productive.
They produced few crops with many people on the job, and the farmers were heavily taxed.
What was the leading import to Rome and why?
The leading imports were grains, because they formed the backbone of the Roman diet
What were the primary reasons Roman roads were constructed?
To help transport huge numbers of soldiers in times of war.
Rank the three main contributors to the Roman economy in order of their importance and explain your ranking.
No. 1 agriculture; provides housing, supply the empire
No. 2 trade; provided profit for Rome
No. 3 industry; provides marble, mining, and other needs
Define the term assassination.
Murdering for political gain
Define the term province.
A province is a territory
Rome was divided into hw many provinces?
Who governed the individual provinces?
Each province had a governor, who was appointed by the emperor, or named by the senate
Which Augustus, what became the accepted practice of choosing a new emperor?
Each emperor chose his successor from his family he thought would make a good emperor
How did Roman leaders unify the new people they conquered?
They granted the Roman citizens recreation and fun activities
What does Augustus mean?
Augustus' rule marked the beginning of what?
The Pax Romana
What event significant to Christianity occurred during the rule of Augustus?
Birth of Jesus
Emperors chosen from family lines are called what?
Under who's rule was Jesus crucified?
What happened in 64 AD?
A great fire swept through Rome
After the end of the Roman Peace, the Empire felt threatened by the growing popularity of what religion?
Who became the first Christian emperor?
Under his rule, where did the capital of the Empire shift?
By 400 AD, what had permanently happened to the Empire?
It permanently split into two distinct regions
Which region survived for another 1000 years?
The eastern Roman Empire
In what type of dwelling did most of the Roman population live?
They lived in apartment buildings called insulae.
List three problems caused by crowded living conditions.
Fires, crimes, and lack of sanitation.
Define the term rhetoric.
The art of effective writing and speaking.
Why was rhetoric so important to a Romans education?
Romans needed to master rhetoric if they wanted to enter law or politics.
What architectural structures allowed for a constant water supply in Rome?
What events took place in the Circus Maximus? The Colosseum?
Circus Maximus held chariot races, and the Colosseum held more bloody games.
Why do you believe the emperors of Rome went to so much trouble to entertain the poor? What might have happened if they ignored the poor?
The emperors wanted there people to be happy to gain their love and trust. If they ignored them, the poor could have revolted and destroyed the empire.
By the AD 100s many of Romans were growing dissatisfied with their religion. Why?
Their religion didn't teach people how they ought to act.
While the Romans were generally tolerant of other religions, what happened as the empire began to decline?
Emperors tried to force people to follow their religion.
What was the status in Rome decided by?
Wealth and birth
Who were the Patricians?
They were elite
Who were the plebeians?
They were citizens
Who were the human property?
Slaves or the poor
Why was the Forum considered "the heart of Rome?"
The forum was the main entertainment for all of the citizens
Define the term insulae.
A large apartment
Describe the conditions under which most Roman citizens lived.
They were dark, over crowded buildings that frequently burned up or collapsed.
What was a triumphal procession?
A parade like festival to honor the success of the Roman soldiers
What does the Latin phrase veni, vidi, vici mean?
I came, i saw, i conquered
Why were the triumphal processions needed within the city of Rome when Roman victories often occurred hundreds of miles away?
The triumphal processions showed the citizens the value of winning a war; made sure the soldiers were acknowledged for their great accomplishments.
What was displayed first in the triumphal procession?
The captive babarians
Why were the spoils of war also displayed?
To respect the captured land
The enemy's commander or king—as well as his entire family and even the teachers of his children—all dressed in black, were also paraded during the procession. Why?
They were sentenced to be killed.
Who was the culminating figure of the entire procession? How was he offset from the rest of the army?
The general. He wore a crown of laurel branches and rode in a chariot.
What was the culminating event a triumph and why did it take place?
Public execution; demonstrating annihilation
What was the point of a Roman Triumph?
To make sure to acknowledge the success of the generals; to show power
Who was allowed to go to the Colosseum to view the spectacles?
Did the spectators at the Colosseum have any control over the events that took place there? Explain.
Yes. If the gladiator begged for mercy, the emperor would turn to the audience to determine if the gladiator would survive.
Why were the political leaders expected to attend the games?
They needed to answer any questions and actually be a part of the game.
Of what material was the basic structures of the Colosseum made? The exterior of the Colosseum was covered with what material? What was the overall impression made by this building?
It was made of concrete with a finishing layer of marble. It was very luxurious.
Describe how the seating area of the Colosseum was a "microcosm of the Roman world."
The seating arrangement was divided into tiers.
Bottom level- upper class citizens
Boxes- the emperor and his family
Middle level- middle class citizens
Attic space- slaves and women
Why were the players on the field, such as the gladiators, always non citizens?
So a Roman soldier wouldn't die in a recreational battle
Gladiators, wild beasts, and prisoners doomed for execution were symbolic of what?
The enemies of Rome
How did the spectacles at the Colosseum reinforce ideas of "Roman manliness"? Why was this considered necessary?
They risked lives
Besides the beasts, gladiators, and prisoners on the floor, who else was on display at the Colosseum?
The emperors and the senate
The worship of many gods
Was Roman religion static (i.e., unchanging)?
The Romans began to identify their gods with those of what other culture?
The Greek culture
Under what circumstances did the Roman government tolerate different forms of worship?
They tolerated this as long as they also paid homage to the official gods
Signs from the gods were called what?
Why did many Romans find their official religion unfulfilling? To what other beliefs did they turn and why?
They believed their religion lacked spiritual fulfillment. They turned to the east religions and the Egyptian religions
True or False: Romans tolerated all forms of religion, including Christianity and Judaism.
True short term, and false long term
What was the main goal of the ancient Romans
In building their cities, the Romans reserved the center of the town for erecting what?
Erecting magnificent public buildings
What motivated the Romans to become master road builders?
To unite the Roman Empire
What building material did the Romans devise that allowed them to build elaborate, beautiful, and lasting structures?
What architectural structures allowed Romans to bring fresh water into their cities? Upon what scientific principal did these structures operate?
Aqueducts. They carry rain water and sewage away from the city.
What is the name if the famous Roman sewer system?
The Cloaca Maxima
List four legal concepts formulated by the ancient Romans.
Lawyers, courts, professional judge, and rules of conduct
Who were the original inhabitants of Rome? Where did they settle?
The Latins. They settled along the Tiber River
What other three powers occupied Italy?
The etruscans, greeks, and carthaginians
Who ruled Rome for its first two centuries?
Around 500 BC what new government was formed?
What 2 classes of citizens made up the Roman Republic?
Patricians and plebeians
Rome became enemies with what powerful neighbor? What were the wars between them called? Why were these wars waged?
Carthage. The Punic wars
What were the five reasons that Rome could maintain a vast empire?
1. They loved their republic and defended it with fierce determination
2. Once a region became a Roman province, many of the native people were granted Roman citizenship.
3. They absorbed the achievements of the people they conquered and utilized them to help develop a lifestyle that was often more advanced and comfortable
4. The Romans allowed people in conquered regions to keep their own language as long as they also worshipped Roman gods and learned Latin.
5. The Romans were excellent engineers and builders to help build the structure of Rome
As Rome expanded, what was common?
What general sought power during this time?
After the end of Constantine's rule, what happened to the Roman Empire?
All pagan religions were forbidden. The Roman Empire was split into two territories, east and west
What era followed the Fall of Rome?
The dark ages
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