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21 terms

Magnetism and Electromagnetism

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Tesla
Magnetic Field Intensity; N/(A•m)
Gauss
unit of magnetic flux density equal to 10ˉ⁵ tesla
Magnetic Field
the lines of force surrounding a permanent magnet or a moving charged particle
Magnetic North
the direction in which a compass needle points, which would be a south (magnet) pole
Magnetic South
the direction that a compass needle points AWAY from, which would be a north (magnet) pole
Permanent Magnet
A magnet that retains its magnetism after being removed from a magnetic field
Electromagnet
A temporary magnet made by passing electric current through a wire coiled around an iron bar.
Right Hand Rule
Common method used to determine the direction of the magnetic force vector. Thumb points in the direction of charge's velocity, fingers point in direction of magnetic (B) field, palm points in the direction of the acting force.
Mass Spectrometer
an instrument that separates ionized atoms or molecules based upon their ratio of charge to mass.
Velocity Selector
used in accelerator mass spectrometry to select particles based on their speed, v= E/B. The velocity selector is composed of orthogonal electric and magnetic fields, such that particles with the correct charge to mass ratio and speed will be unaffected, and other particles will be deflected.
Solenoid
a long straight coil of wire.
Toroid
a doughnut shaped coil of wire; a solenoid bent into a closed circle.
Electromagnetic Induction
.Process by which electrical current is induced in a wire when it is moved through a magnetic field; generating electrical current from the motion of a conductor through a magnetic field
Faraday's Law
Calculates the amount of electromotive force (emf) induced based on the rate at which magnetic flux changes.
Magnetic Flux
the number of magnetic field lines that pass through a surface
Lenz's Law
When magnetic flux changes in a system, the system will induce a magnetic effect to oppose that change
Eddy Current
Induced circulating currents in a conducting material that are caused by a varying magnetic field.
Electric Motor
A device that contains a rotating electromagnet that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Electric Generator
a device that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. Relies on basic principle that if you move a coil of wire through magnetic field, electrons would flow through the wire.
Faraday cage
a metallic enclosure that prevents the entry or escape of an electromagnetic field
Magnetic Domain
a region in which the magnetic fields of all atoms are lined up in the same direction