AP Gov Written Semester 1

1a) Define conventional participation and give one example.
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Terms in this set (19)
Constituent services are outlets that allow citizens to communicate with officials.
An constituent service works to the advantage of the incumbent by providing social security and Veterans benefits to citizen in exchange for being re-elected.

A Political Action Committee is an interest group that raises for individuals in a political campaign. PACs work to the advantage of the incumbent by providing the present official with the most money in hopes that they will be re-elected.

Franking privileges are the ability of members of Congress to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by writing signature for postage. Franking privileges work to the advantage of the incumbent by providing citizens with name recognition of present officials.
4b) Explain one way in which the winner-take-all feature of the Electoral College hinders third-party candidates.The winner-take all feature of the Electoral College hinders third-party candidates is by promoting a two party system where no candidate can receive 270 votes with three parties.4c) Describe how each state's number of electoral votes is determined.Each state's number of electoral votes is determined by a state's number of US Senators, always 2, plus the number of US Representatives based on population size.5a) Name and describe two different interest groups.An economic interest group, National Association Manufacturers, influences gov't policies including business and trade association. A single-issue interest group, National Rifle Association, influences gov't policies including 2nd Amendment and abortion and is known for its intensity in lobbying.5b) Choose one of your interest groups from above and describe one tactic it would use to gain influence in the political process.An economic interest group would use the tactic of PACs to provide money for incumbents in election races. This would allow the interest group to have a strong influence on political processes.5c) Define pluralism and describe how it serves to limit interest groups influencePluralism is a theory of democracy that includes multiple competitive organizations which individuals can participate in politics through. Pluralism serves to limit the influence of interest groups by decentralizing the gov't from a single point of power. Therefore, using pluralism in gov't allows for more access points and decentralizes the power.6a) Explain the term gatekeepers.The term gatekeeper can be described as the media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters who direct the flow of news. They control what the public views within the media, and they can also influence the importance of an issue by how they publish a story. Essentially, they decide what is put on the political agenda. This is what the term gatekeeper means.6b) Describe how the national news media engage in agenda settingThe national news media engages in agenda setting by raising awareness about an issue, or piece of legislation. They also provide information and get the gov't attention on big issues. That is how the national news media engages agenda setting.6c) Explain the term watchdog journalism and describe how it serves the interest of the American publicWatchdog journalism can be defined as journalism that scrutinizes public and publicizes perceived misconduct. Watchdog journalism serves the interest of the American public because it updates the american people on any scandals related to their candidates for any type of gov't position such as president or governor. Essentially watchdog journalism watches our candidates, and keeps us updated with what they have done wrong. This can influence people's votes in elections.6d) Define horserace journalism and describe its impact during a presidential primary seasonHorserace journalism can be defined as election coverage by the mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on national issues. The impact that horserace journalism has during a presidental primary season is that it can focus on which candidate is ahead, and potentially sway voters either for or against the person that seems to be in first at the at point.