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Terms in this set (81)
One of the most important tools of the forensic investigator is the ability to do what?
observe, interpret, and report observations clearly
What is perception?
Interpreting information received from the senses. It is faulty, not always accurate, and does not always reflect reality
Criminal investigations depend on the observation skills of all involved. What are some of those skills?
police investigators, forensic scientists, and witnesses
What is the Innocence Project?
It was created by Barry C. Scheck and Peter J. Neufield in 1992. Its purpose was to reexamine post-conviction cases using DNA evidence to provide conclusive proof of innocence
What does the latin word, forensic mean?
of the forum
Paul Elkman is an expert in what?
facial analysis and deception
What did Elkman learn about our expressions?
they are biologically programmed
A forensic scientist must always have_____________________
proper documentation (this might not be the answer this question is really vague)
What are some things a forensic scientist must do when observing a crime scene or/and examining evidence in a lab?
identify the evidence, record the evidence, and determine the significance of the evidence
What is an eyewitness? What do they often tell you?
a person who has seen someone or something that communicate facts.
How do we ensure that all evidence is found?
a crime scene is often laid out in a grid
What is perception
Eyewitness accounts of crime-scene events vary considerably from one person to another. Why?
because what you observe depends on your level of interest, stress, concentration and the amount and kind of distraction that may be present
Goals of crime scene investigators
recognize, document, and collect evidence at the scene of a crime
firsthand observations such as eyewitness accounts or police dashboard video cameras
indirect evidence that can be used to imply a fact but that does not directly prove it
hair, fiber, glass, soil
not unique to a particular object but place that particular bit of evidence into a group of objects
Be able to identify specialists in the field
police, crime scene investigators, medical examiners, detectives, specialists
First person to arrive at a scene
Another name for criminal examiners
Identify crime scene investigators
they document the crime scene in detail and collect physical evidence. They also record data, sketch the scene, and take photos of the crime scene
Who secures a crime scene
Liquids and arson remains are stored in what kind of containers?
airtight unbreakable containers
the region of a hair located outside the medulla that contains granules of pigment
a type of fibrous protein that makes up the majority of the cortex of a hair
Hair is considered what kind of evidence?
Secondary transfer examples
hair adhering to clothes, carpets and many other surfaces and transferring to other locations
When did investigators recognize the importance of analysis of hair as trace evidence
A classic 1883 text on forensic science, The Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence by Alfred Swaine Taylor and Thomas Stevenson contains a chapter on using
hair in forensic investigations
In 1910 a comprehensive study of hair titled The Hair of Man and Animals was published by the French forensic scientists, Victor Balthazard and Marcelle Lambert. This text includes numerous microscopic studies of___________________
The use of the comparison microscope to perform side-by-side analysis of hair collected from the crime scene and hair from a suspect or victim first occurred in what year
What is the main purpose of hair on mammals
regulate body temperature--to keep the body warm by insulating it
When humans are born how many follicles do they have?
5 million hair follicles, only which 2 percent are on the head
What are the microscopic characteristics of hair?
pattern of the medulla, pigmentation of the cortex, and types of scales on the cuticle
What is fluorescence?
when using a fluorescence microscope if the sample contains particular chemicals, it absorbs some of the light and re emits light of a different color
Give examples of ingested or absorbed toxins can be detected by chemical analysis of hair
arsenic, lead, drugs
When could a follicular tag be present
when hair is forcibly removed from a victim and the hair follicle is present
Differences of human vs animal hair
the pattern of the pigmentation, the medullary index, and the cuticle type
Fibers that have been spun together are called
a small molecule that may bond to other monomers to become a polymer
the passing of evidence such as fiber from victim to suspect or vice verse
Early collection of fibers in an investigation is critical. Why?
because 95% of fibers may have fallen from victim or been lost from crime scene
How can fiber evidence be collected?
with a special vacuum, sticky tape, and forceps
Polarizing light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Do they damage hair?
maybe...maybe not idfk the answer
Classification of fibers
natural and synthetic
come from animals, plants, and minerals that are mined from the ground
Common polymer in plants fibers
One seed fiber
Fiberglass is a fiber form of
Until the nineteenth century, only plant or animals fibers were used to make clothing and textiles. Half the fibers produced today are synthetic. How are they characterized
regenerated fibers and polymers
"Smiling Gus" Winkler, a gangster, thought he could stay ahead of policy by:
surgically altering his fingertips.
In Chicago "Smiling Gus" Winkler met up with some of Chicago's most famous gangsters. Who are they
Fred "Killer" Burke, Bugsy Moran, and Al Capone.
What did Winkler do in 1933
he was gunned down by unknown assailants.
Pudd'nhead Wilson is a lawyer created by Mark Twain in the novel of the same name, published in November of 1894. He was an expert in what
In western culture, the earliest record of the study of the patterns on human hands comes from
Fingerprint collection began in 1856 by
Sir William Herschel.
In 1879, the assistant clerk in the records office at the Police Station in Paris created a way to identify criminals. The system was first used in 1883 to identify a repeating offender.
In 1888, Sir Francis Galton, along with Sir E.R. Henry developed the classification system for fingerprints. Where is that system still used?
United States and Europe.
Fingerprints - how are they grouped
arch, a whorl & a loop pattern.
The imprint of a fingerprint consists of
natural secretions of the sweat glands that are present in the friction ridge of the skin.
pattern of a fingerprint that resembles the letter delta
major features of a fingerprint, using which comparisons of one print with another can be made
Know examples of biological evidence
blood, semen, saliva, hair
test to identify and evaluate the size, shape, and number of chromosomes in a sample of body cells
James Watson and Francis Crick
solved the structure of DNA. They received the 1953 Nobel Prize for their work on describing the structure of DNA-- a double helix that resembles a twisted ladder
alternative form of a gene
segment of DNA that codes for a trait
all of the DNA found in human cells
In 1984, Dr. Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicaster observed that DNA from different individuals contains different polymorphisms. His laboratory developed a technique for isolating and analyzing these variable areas that is known as
DNA fingerprinting, or DNA profiling
central core of a hair
How many hairs do forensic scientists distinguish on the human body
How many stages do hairs have as they develop
3: anagen, catagen, and telogen phases
The cuticle of human hair is described as
a transparent outer layer of the hair shaft. It is made of scales that overlap one another and protect the inner layers of the hair.
Locard's exchange principle
the exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another
plain, basket, satin, twill, leno
simplest weave pattern
number of horizontal and vertical threads in a square inch of fabric
relative of banana tree
very smooth and often shiny fabric that resists wear and feels cold in hot water
How many individual ridge characteristics are there on the average full fingerprint.
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