AP Environmental Science Aquatic and Terrestrial Biodiversity
Terms in this set (47)
Effects of Climate Change on aquatic ecosystems
-The key factors determining biodiversity in aquatic systems are temperature, dissolved oxygen content, availability of food, and availability of light and nutrients necessary for photosynthesis
Coral reefs are the oldest most diverse and most productive ecosystem.
Important ecological and Economic Services
-produce 1/10 of worlds fish, 1/4 in developing countries.
-Coral reefs also remove co2 from the atmosphere
-help regulate temperatures.
What Percentage of Coral Reefs have been destroyed already?
Three ways humans negatively affect coral reefs
19% of reefs destroyed, 20% degraded, could lose 25-33% in 20 to 40 years.
3 ways humans negatively effect coral reefs
1. The increase in ocean temperature and dissolved CO2 due to climate change is resulting in coral bleaching.
2. Vegetation removal, soil erosion and fertilizer loss from expanding agriculture.
3. Expanding coastal urbanization and the associated discharge of insufficiently treated sewage, and industrial pollution.
Effects of Rising Sea Waters
Climate Change can cause a rise in sea waters which would destroy coral reefs.
The Magnuson-Stevens Act
(1976) Magnuson-Stevens Act is the primary law governing marine fisheries management in U.S. federal waters. the Magnuson-Stevens Act fosters long-term biological and economic sustainability of our nation's marine fisheries out to 200 nautical miles from shore. Key objectives of the Magnuson-Stevens Act are to:
-Rebuild overfished stocks
-Increase long-term economic and social benefits
-Ensure a safe and sustainable supply of seafood
Prohibits the trade of plants and wildlife that have been illegally taken, transported, or possessed.
Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES):
- (1973) Agreement amount 175 nations that regulates species that may become extinct/endangered because of international trade
-List species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife product
-Goal: to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival
-Accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants.
-Where rivers meet the sea. Partially enclosed bodies of water where sea water meets fresh water and pollutants from streams, rivers, and runoff from land.
-Estuaries provide a safe haven and protective nursery for small fish, shellfish, migrating birds, and coastal shore animals.
-Open to sea, Land areas covered with water all or part of the year(river mouths, inlets, bays, sounds, coastal marshes, and mangrove forests)
Coastal Wetlands - What Environmental/Ecological Services do they provide
Environmental/Ecological services provided by Coastal Wetlands
1. Flood Protection: Coastal wetlands protect upland areas, including valuable residential and commercial property, from flooding due to sea level rise and storms.
2. Erosion Control: Coastal wetlands can prevent coastline erosion due to their ability to absorb the energy created by ocean currents which would otherwise degrade a shoreline and associated development.
3. Wildlife Food & Habitat: Coastal wetlands provide habitat for many federally threatened and endangered species, including Whooping Crane, Louisiana Black Bear and Florida Panther. Two of North America's migratory bird flyways pass over the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, where coastal wetlands provide temporary habitat to waterfowl and shorebirds.
Inland Wetlands - What Environmental/Ecological Services do they provide
4 most important Ecosystem and economic service provided by inland wetlands.
- Filtering and degrading toxic wastes and pollutants
- Helping to recharge groundwater aquifers
- Helping to maintain biodiversity by providing habitats for a variety of species
- Reducing flooding and erosion by absorbing storm water and releasing it slowly and by absorbing overflows from streams and lakes.
What occurs when a species that has been introduced to a new habitat becomes invasive?
How are species introduced?
What are some of the ecological and economic impacts of invasive species?
If a species becomes invasive, it is much more capable of competing than the native species, and it messes up the whole ecosystem.
After habitat loss and degradation, invasive species is the biggest cause of the premature animal and plant extinctions.
Species can be introduced for:
-and by accidents
-Shipping carry approximately 90% of all internationally traded goods. Ships fill up their ballast tanks, they take in water surrounding the ship - and with it come the organisms living in that water. These unwanted stowaways - marine and freshwater fish larvae and small fish, crustaceans, algae, invertebrates, and even viruses and bacteria - are then let out into a new environment when the ship reaches the next port and discharges its ballast to load cargo.
Invasive species can kill many of the native species and disrupt the food web resulting in economic loss.
Ways to control
•Do not buy wild plants and animals or remove them from natural areas.
•Do not release wild pets in natural areas.
•Do not dump aquarium contents or unused fishing bait into waterways or storm drains.
Factors that might make it vulnerable to extinction
Low reproductive system
-Blue Whale, Giant Panda, Rhinoceros
-Blue Whale, Giant Panda, Everglades kite
-Elephant seal, desert pupfish
Feeds at high trophic level
-Bengal tiger, bald eagle, grizzly bear
Fixed migratory patterns
-Blue whale, whooping crane, sea turtle
-African Violet, and some Orchids
Snow leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, rare plants, and birds
-California condor, grizzly bear, Florida panther
How might global warming cause species extinction?
Two animal examples...
Polar Bear: Loss of its sea ice habitat due to global warming
•The retreat of ice has implications beyond the obvious habitat loss. Remaining ice is farther from shore, making it less accessible. The larger gap of open water between the ice and land also contributes to rougher wave conditions, making the bears' swim from shore to sea ice more hazardous.
•Scarcity of Food - the shrinking polar ice cap will also cause a decline in polar bears' prey -- seals. The reduction in ice platforms near productive areas for the fish that the seals eat affects their nutritional status and reproduction rates.
Orange-spotted filefish The filefish dwells in coral reef habitats, on which it is totally dependent, and which themselves are declining in part due to climate change. In addition, the orange-spotted filefish is highly sensitive to warm water.
How is the current wave of extinction different from all others?
Human population and economic development are the key factor in this wave of extinction
No population of a large vertebrate animal in the history of the planet has grown that much, that fast, or with such devastating consequences to its fellow earthlings.
any habitat surrounded by a different one can be viewed as a habitat island for most of the species that live there
What are the factors that influence species' diversity in a
? What is the effect of island size and distance on immigration and extinctions? How does this affect overall species numbers?
The factors that influence diversity are immigration rates and extinction rates. As island size goes up, there is more immigration and less extinction. Near islands have more immigration than far islands, but extinction rates are unchanged. So, large, near islands would have the most species.
- byroads, logging, agriculture and urban development
- occurs when a large continuous area of habitat is reduced in area and divided into smaller, more scattered and isolated patches or habitat islands
- Approx. 70% of the world's nearly 10, 000 known birth species are dealing in number and roughly on of every 8 (12%) of these is threatened with extinction mostly because of habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation
Illegal logging and its effects
Illegal Logging and its effects:
Drives deforestation and threatens our rainforests that provide a
for many animal species, without the habitat the animals become endangered and eventually extinct
-Without trees in the rainforest less water is removed from the soil and evaporated into the air through evapotranspiration, meaning less rainfall the rest of the rainforest reducing plant growth
Difference between Intrinsic, existence value, ecological value, bequest value
•Philosophy that components of the environment have value simply because they exist regardless of their use to us
-the satisfaction of knowing that a redwood forest, a wilderness, orang-utans and a wolf pack exist, even if we will never see them or get use from them
-species diversity holds ecological value because it is a vital component of the key ecosystem functions of energy flow, nutrient cycling and population control
-based on he fact that people will pay to protect some forms of natural capital for use by future generations
Why Ecotourism is good
•Saving areas so that tourists will come to see places that do not exist where they live - money gets spent in places where the economy may be poor
What can I do in each?
National Wildlife refuge
National Wildlife Refuge
•National Wildlife Refuge System started 1903 w/ T Roos
•Most serve as wetland sanctuaries
•Most refuges protect habitats and breeding areas for waterfowl and big game to provide a harvestable supply for hunters; a few protect endangered species from extinction.
•Consists of 155 forests, and 22 grasslands. They are used for logging, mining, livestock grazing, farming, oil and gas extraction, recreation, hunting, fishing, and conservation of watershed, soil, and wildlife.
•Often called crown jewels
•Establish in 1912
•Includes 58 major parks and 331 national recreation areas, monuments, memorials, battlefields, historic sites, parkways, trails, rivers, seashores, and lakeshores.
2 services provided by Forests
Service #1: Forests provide oxygen (via photosynthesis)
Impact: Some loss of oxygen, without which we cannot live
Service #2: Forests provide wood for fuel
Impact: increase in the short-term availability of wood, but potential long-term loss of availability
What is important about Habitat Corridors
Connects wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures. Corridors between nature reserves supports more species and allows migration; allows species to move.
•enlarging habitats, for example to improve the search for food,
•dispersion of young animals,
•re-use of "empty" habitats.
Because of climate change, the borders of suitable habitats are continuously changing. Because of that, it's important for many species to be able to migrate over great distances
; allows an exchange of individuals between populations, which may help prevent the negative effects of inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity
How to make Habitat Corridors
-Build strategic gaps in guardrails.
-Create underpasses, bridges and culverts for safer crossing.
-Reduce attractive roadside chemical deposits.
-Improve land management to reduce habitat fragmentation.
-Install signage to warn motorists of animal crossings.
-Reduce speed limits and increase sight distances.
-Minimal Environmental damage
-Not as efficient as clear cutting
-Increases Timber Yield
-Shortens time needed for new trees to grow
-Ugly & Unnatural looking
-Land is unusable for several decades
-Habitat is degraded
-Encourages growth of younger trees.
-Protects from soil erosion
-Pines and hardwoods don't get enough sun
Economic & Ecological services that Rainforests provide
Economic Services of forests
- pulp to make paper
- livestock grazing
Ecological services of forests
- Nutrient cycling
- Climate regulation
- Erosion Control
- Waste Treatment
- Raw Material
Threats to Rainforests
-crop and timber exports
-not valuing ecological services
How to fix Rainforests
-by emphasizing the economic value of their ecological services
-removing government subsidies that hasten their destruction
-protecting old-growth forests
-harvesting trees no faster than they are replenished
help new settlers learn how to practice small-scale sustainable agriculture and forestry, harvest renewable resources on a sustainable basis, reducing poverty and slowing population growth could help protect these forests too, rehabilitate degraded areas and encourage regrowth through secondary succession, subsidizing only sustainable forests
Ecological services that grasslands provide
•Is a biome that is covered in grass
•After forests it is the most used and abused biome
•Types of Grasslands
o Rangelands-managed grasslands, usually planted species not wild
- soil formation
- erosion control
- nutrient cycling
- storage of atmosphere CO2 in biomass
- maintenance of biodiversity
Threats to Grasslands
•When too many animals graze for too long
•Exceeds carrying capacity of rangeland
•Reduces grass cover
•Compacts soil and exposes it to erosion
•Encourages invasion of once-productive rangeland species that cattle don't eat
-conversion to agriculture
How to fix Grasslands
PROTECT THE LAND FROM OVERGRAZING
• Rotational Grazing
• Suppress invasive species
• Reduce soil erosion
Illegal harvesting of Rhino Horns
since 1970, 90% rhinos are gone...
Horns taken for : medicine & handles/daggers
Should we Dehorn them to save them from death?? Why or why not?
I say no...
- may not save the rhino (killed anyways)
- effects on rhino survival
- decreases rhino value (ecotourism)
- carefully protected
Bees - Ecological and Economic Services
Bees pollinate 1/3 of everything we eat about 84% of our crops are pollinated by bees.
Bees - Ecological and Economic Problems
Threats to our bees:
•The Varroa Mite, a parasitic insect
•Stress and poor nutrition
most fishing boats hunt and capture one or a small # of commercially valuable species, however their gigantic nets and incredibly long line of hooks also catch non target species called bycatch
- used to catch fishes and shellfish that live on or near the ocean floor
- involves dragging a funnel shaped net help open at the neck along the ocean bottom
drift net fishing
- fish are caught by huge drifting nets that can hang as deep as 15m below the surface and extend to 64km long
- this method can lead to over fishing of the desired species and may trap and kill large quantities of unwanted fish, marine animals, sea turtles, and sea birds
- involves putting out line up to 130km long hung with thousands of baited hooks
- depth of the lines can be adjusted to catch open fish species
Increases nitrogen in the water, which causes an increase in phytoplankton and algae which decreases the amount of oxygen in the lake or river.
What were the negative effects of human activities directed towards the Everglades?
What are they proposing to reverse these effects?
Negative effects of human activities directed towards the Everglades
-Phosphorous can speed eutrophication and stimulate harmful algal blooms
-Phosphorus may give a selective advantage to invasive species, which displace native plants.
Plan to reverse effects:
-Multibillion dollar plan to restore the Florida Everglades by addressing water flow and storage.
-Buffer zones/retention ponds/waste lagoons around agricultural areas
-Upgrade wastewater treatment plants to remove phosphates from wastewater
-Artificial wetlands created to capture runoff from agricultural areas.
Acronym used to summarize the most direct causes of extinction in order of significance
H - Habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation
I - Invation (nonnative) species
P - Population growth and increasing use of resources
P - Pollution
C - Climate Change
O - Overexploitation
Bio-magnification & Bioaccumulation
the concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of its ingesting other plants or animals in which the toxins are more widely disbursed.
refers to the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
•Bioaccumulation and biomagnification:
:* DDT is a fat-soluble chemical that can accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals. In a food chain or web, the accumulated DDT is biologically magnified in the bodies of animals at each higher trophic level.
Organisms at higher trophic levels are exposed to all of the toxins accumulated by lower levels
Because predatory birds eat fish, the fish eat the zooplankton that are contaminated by the DDT that has polluted the water from pesticide runoff.
Direct and Indirect effects of humans on biodiversity.
- Degradation and destruction of natural ecosystems.
- Alteration of natural chemical cycles and energy flows.
- Changes in number and distribution of species.
- Pollution of air, water, and soil.
- Climate change.
- Loss of Biodiversity