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Terms in this set (163)
Status Quo, less Gov.
Peaceful gradual change, reject violent revolution
Far Left, Resorts to extreme methods to bring about change.
Tool used to visually compare different political positions by placing them on one or more axis.
Less Gov intervention, Traditional Values
More Gov Intervention, support change
Executive are members of the legislative branch
Separates Power between executive/legislative
Far right, Extreme methods
People represented through elected officials.
Body of people living in a defined territory, having power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority.
Power in the hands of royalty
Ruled by a single leader not elected.
Religious based Government
All things a government decides to do.
Power which is agreed upon.
Four aspects of the State
1. Population: must have people
2. Territory: recognized boundaries
3. Sovereignty: Having supreme and absolute authority in it's own territory
4. Government- Different forms
Developed out of early familiy
Divine Right Theory
State created by God and those of royal birth have a divine right to rule.
A group claimed control and forced all other to submit.
Social or Political Contract theory
Peoples moral and/or political obligations are dependent on an agreement among them to form the society in which they live. *Law and political order are not natural, they are human creations.
An alliance of independent states
Power is divided between a central gov't and several local gov't.
State of Nature
Survival of the Fittest
All power belongs to one level of gov't
An organization of people set up to protect the community and make rules.
Activities relate to governance of a country or area
Gov elected by the people. Determine either directly or through elected Reps.
People vote Directly on every issue
Generally liberal because they support gov reg. of the economy.
Generally Conservatives because they advocate a reduction in gov.
Current issues (Left)
Left: Pro Gun control, Pro Choice, No Censorship, Prisons should Rehabilitate, Pro-privacy, Equal funding for Education.
Current issues (Right)
Right: Anti-gun Control, Pro-life, Anti Flag burning, Prisons should punish, Prayer in schools, School vouchers.
Gov have $ to fund programs benefiting society,
% taxes preferred over flat rate,
rich= more tax
Taxes infringe on personal freedoms
Taxes= bad for free market
Taxes= Penalization those who are successful
Taxes= Punish Profit
Prefers flat tax
Business Regulation (Left)
Yes on gov. Reg
Market no reliable to provide safe work conditions
Gov. reg= protect workers+ consumers=
Everyone= chance to succeed
Business Regulations (Right)
Business need free from gov. and supply and demand will guide
Gov policies that affect products are bad
Trickle down economics is the way to stimulate economy
Political Rights (Left)
Extend Civil Rights to minority groups, students, prisoners, homosexuals, and poor.
Protect individual rights: Free speech, pro-choice, anti-capital punishment, and privacy.
Political Rights (Right)
Cent gov= diminish
Issues dealt best on state and local level
No change in family values ( usually christian centered)
O.K to censor obscure ideas that shake Status Quo.
Distribution of wealth (Left)
Disparity between rich and poor no good, taxes= distribute wealth.
Gov more involved in ed, Health care, Child C., and Elderly.
Pub Project= Stimulate economy
Distribution of wealth (Right)
Business= right to make profit
People are rich or poor b/c of choices they make
Prosperous people should no be penalized.
Minimum wage standards
Public projects= more jobs
Gov provide basic living standards of living to all citizens
Economy works best in free market (Laissez- Faire)
Forces of the market= trusted to meet needs of business, consumer, and workers.
Gov. programs should not compete with private industry.
Foreign Affairs (Left)
Spread Democracy + Protect human rights in the world
Strong Support of UN.
Foreign Affairs (Right)
Gov role= pro us business and econ. intervention in other countries.
Fix us before we fix others
Support tariffs (tax on imports)
SCOPE OF THE GOVERNMENT (Left)
The government should serve as the equalizers in society and establish a basic standard of living, a minimum wage is an acceptable tool of government intervention.
The left accepts government control and regulation of business and an active government that protects political rights.
SCOPE OF THE GOVERNMENT (Right)
Government should be downsized.
Large governments, both federal and state, have the power to control business
interests and therefore potentially infringe on the freedoms of individuals.
Government programs tend to provide unnecessary services that go beyond the
scope of the constitution.
Two- Party System
A system where two major political parties dominate politics within a government
Any political party that is not one of the two major parties in a two-party system
Each issue included in a political party's platform. Gives the candidates a clear political position with which they can campaign. They give voters a sense of what the candidates believe in, the issues they think are important, and how - if elected - they will address them.
Step 1: Formation of a Presidential Exploratory Committee
Step 2: Announcement of intention to run for president based on findings of the exploratory committee
Step 3: Fundraising and gathering of support and endorsements from the general public as well as other politicians, special interest groups, corporations, etc.
Step 4: Campaigning early, especially in states where primaries are important (Iowa, New Hampshire, candidates home state, etc.)
Step 5: Continuing to campaign to beat out all other opponents from within your own party
Step 6: Attending your party's National Convention and securing the nomination of the party
Step 7: Campaigning nationwide against your opponents from other parties
Step 8: Winning election and securing enough electoral college votes to be named the next president
Three main concepts of Government brought by English Colonists
The need for an ordered social system, or government.
The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all-powerful.
The concept of representative government—a government that serves the will of the people.
Ruled directly by the English monarchy.
Land given to the colonist by the Monarchy
Self-governed, and their charters were granted to the colonists.
A joining of several groups for a common purpose
The Albany Plan
In 1754, Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan, an annual congress of delegates (representatives) from each of the 13 colonies would be formed.
Stamp Act Congress
In 1765, a group of colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York.
These delegates prepared the Declaration of Rights and Grievances against British policies and sent it to the king.
First Continental Congress
The colonists sent a Declaration of Rights to King George III.
The delegates urged each of the colonies to refuse all trade with England until British tax and trade regulations were repealed, or recalled.
Second Continental Congress
In 1775, each of the 13 colonies sent representatives to this gathering in Philadelphia.
The Second Continental Congress served as the first government of the United States from 1776 to 1781.
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
Between 1776 and 1777, most of the States adopted constitutions instead of charters.
Common Features of State Constitutions
Civil Rights and Liberties
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
The principle of popular sovereignty was the basis for every new State constitution. That principle says that government can exist and function only with the consent of the governed. The people hold power and the people are sovereign.
The concept of limited government was a major feature of each State constitution. The powers delegated to government were granted reluctantly and hedged with many restrictions.
Civil Rights and Liberties
In every State it was made clear that the sovereign people held certain rights that the government must respect at all times. Seven of the new constitutions contained a bill of rights, setting out the "unalienable rights" held by the people.
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
The powers granted to the new State governments were purposely divided among three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch was given powers with which to check (restrain the actions of) the other branches of the government.
Articles of Confederation (AC)
Approved November 15, 1777
Est. "a firm league of friendship" between the states
Needed the ratification of the 13 states
March 1, 1781 Second Continental Congress declared the Articles effective
Structure of Constitution
3 parts; the preamble, the articles(7), and the amendments
intro, explains purpose of Constitution and purpose of govt
establishes legislative branch
creates an executive branch to carry out laws created by Congress
creates judicial branch
explains the relationship of the states to one another and to the national govt
spells out the ways the Constitution can be amended
contains the supremacy clause, establishing that federal law shall be the supreme law of the land
addresses ratification and says that 9 states are needed to ratify the Constitution
Senate - equal representation
House - proportional representation based on population
Combination of Virginia and New Jersey plans
6 Major Principles of Constitution
1. Popular sovereignty- rule by people
2. Federalism- power is divided between national and state govts
3. Separation of powers- limits the central govt by dividing power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
4. checks and balances- each branch of govt exercises some control over the others
a compromise, combining features of both congressional selection and direct popular election
individuals selected in each state to officially cast that state's electoral votes; Wisconsin selects 10 electors
the popular vote winner may not win the electoral college; for example: small-state bias caused by each state getting at least three electoral votes regardless of its size
The Virginia Plan
-Three Separate branches of government: Legislature, Executive, and Judicial
-Bicameral legislature (2 parts)
-Based on population or the amount of money given to support the central government
-Members of House of Reps = based on population
-Senate = chosen by House from a list from the State Legislature
-Congress would be given powers it had under the Articles of Confederation
-Any State law that conflicted with National Law would be vetoed
-"National Executive" and "National Judiciary"
-Council of Revision
-Veto acts passed by Congress (but can be overridden by Congress)
-State officers should take an Oath to the Union
-Admission process for new States
New Jersey Plan
-Unicameral (one body) Congress of the Confederation
-Each state equally represented
-Give them limited and closely monitored powers
-Tax and regulate trade
-More than one person
-Chosen by Congress/could be removed with a majority vote
-Single "supreme Tribunal"
-Selected by the Executive Branch
All "free persons" will be counted; 3/5 of all other persons
Southerners could count slaves but had to pay taxes on them
power of courts to say that laws and actions of govt are invalid bc they conflict w the constitution's principles
The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromises
Congress has the power to regulate foreign and interstate trade
-Scared southerners because of slave trade
-States cannot enact import/export taxes only federal government can
-Could not act on the slave trade for 20 years
AC (Power of congress)
Make war and peace
Send and receive ambassadors
Set up a money system
Est. post offices
Build a navy
Raise an army by asking the states for troops
Fix uniform standards of weights and measures
Settle disputes among the states
James Madison was the co-author of the Articles of Confederation.
Kept detailed records of the convention
Conventions Floor leader
Contributed more to the constitution than any other
Mid-February of 1787
meeting of all thirteen States, which eventually became the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
AC (States Obligations)
Pledge to obey the Articles and Acts of the Congress
Provide the funds and troops requested by the congress
Treat citizens of other states fairly and equally
Give full faith and credit to public acts, records, and judicial proceedings
Submit disputes to congress for settlement
Allow open travel and trade b/w and among states
Primarily responsible for protecting life and property
Accountable for promoting the general welfare of the people.
Weaknesses of the Articles
-One vote for each state, regardless of size.
-Congress powerless to lay and collect taxes, and regulate foreign and interstate commerce.
-No executive to enforce acts of congress.
-No national court system.
Amendment only with consent of all states.
-Amendment only with consent of all State.
-A 9/13 majority required to pass laws.
-Articles only a "firm league of friendship"
efforts by individuals or groups to influence governmental decision makers
Types of lobbying;
-often former legislatives
appeals directly to lawmakers and their staff
-by providing research and info
-by testifying at committee hearings
attempt to influence decision makers indirectly, by influencing the public
-try to build public support
-increase conflict about an issue
-lobby other groups and try to form alliances
tactics: direct contact, direct mail, and media advertisements
-efforts to help candidates financially
-efforts to help candidates gain voter support
testifying to influence public policy
Types of Interest Groups
-consumer and other public interest lobbies
- organized commercial groups, farm organizations
- corporations; form own interest groups, hire lobbyists
- labor unions, professional associations
- sprang up since 1970
- profound policy impact bc of numbers, not money
Political Action Committees;
raise and spend money to influence electoral outcomes
14th Amendment guarantees equality
Minorities and Equality
- social welfare policies
Consumer and Other Public Interest Lobbies
Represent broad classes of people or the public as a whole
-consumer, voters, reformers, etc
Public Interest Groups
-policies that are in the public's interest
-advocate a strong ideological viewpoint
How do interest groups shape public policy?
lobbying, electioneering, litigation, going public
Law making process
Chief of State - the ceremonial head of the government of the United States
Chief Executive - given this title by the Constitution
Chief Administrator - carry out the laws, head of the federal bureaucracy
Chief Diplomat - main architect of America's foreign policy
Commander in Chief - head of the nation's armed forces
Chief Legislator - can push for laws to be passed
Chief of Party - Leader of their political party
Must be a natural born citizen
Be at least 35 years old
Have lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years
Who takes over if pres. cannot
Speaker of the House
President pro tempore
Secretary of State
set 2 term limit on
$400,000 a year and $50,000 expense account
Live in the White House (132 Rooms)
Yacht, Automobiles, Air Force One
Lifetime pension of $143,800 a year
Camp David - Resort in Maryland
Power to appoint cabinet members, diplomats and ambassadors, judges
Power to make treaties - formal agreement between two or more sovereign state
Executive Agreement - pacts between the President and the heads of foreign states
Recognition - President can acknowledge the legal existence of a country and its government
Presidential Legislative power
Can call for a special session of Congress
Presidential Judicial power
Reprieve - postponement of the execution of a sentence
Pardon - legal forgiveness of a crime (only involving a federal offense)
Commutation - reduce the length of a sentence or a fine
Amnesty - a general pardon offered to a group of violators
1977 - Pardon to Vietnam War draft evaders
Main jobs of House and Senate
Represent their Constituents
435 members (each state's delegation is determined by its population)
100 members (two per state)
25 years old
U.S Citizens for 7 years
Resident of State they're representing
30 years old
U.S citizens for 9 years
Resident of State they're representing
Terms limit for House
2 years entire house elected every two years
Terms limit for Senate
1/3 of Senate 2 years
"Leader" of House
Speaker of the House
"Leader" of Senate
How House is elected
Directly voted by voter per district
How Senate is elected
Directly by the voters of a state
Applies only to HOUSE
redistribution of seats every 10 years
states gain or lose seats based on their population growing or shrinking
Author of book "Common Sense"
an attempt by politicians to create unbalanced districts for their party's political gain
Special Powers of House
Brings impeachment charges
May choose the President if there is no majority in the electoral system
Must start all revenue bills
Special Powers of Senate
Acts as jury in impeachment trials (2/3 vote needed)
May choose the Vice President if there is no majority in the electoral system
Must ratify treaties with foreign nations by 2/3 vote
Must approves Presidential appointments (majority needed)
What makes an interest group successful?
access, info, leadership skills, numerical strength, group unity, money
- strengthen Congress' role in the budgeting process
- groups link ppl and govt
- competition between interest groups is a central part of American democracy
- different groups have strengths in different areas
Types of Committees
- handle bills in different policy areas
- may be temporary and permanent and usually have focused responsibility
- draw their membership from both the Senate and the House
- are formed when Senate and the house pass different versions of the same bill
- reject the pluralists' assertion that competing groups balance power
- believe unequal distribution of power in society ensures that interests of some groups will dominate others
- argue that pluralism in the US is out of control
-results in govt that is very subservient to interest groups and tries to appease them all
4 Models of Representations
- assumes that a representative's job is to convey the will of the majority of their constituents to the legislature
- should take the majority view into account but use his or best judgment when voting or acting on behalf of constituents
-middle path between trustees and delegate model
- should generally follow what the follow what the public says unless it goes against their deepest values
bringing issues to the public's attention and placing them on the national agenda
Government Accountability Office
- broad authority to oversee the operations and finances of executive agencies
Government Printing Office
- distributes over 200,000 govt publications in U.S. govt bookstores throughout the nation
Types of gerrymandering
- drawing a district to favor one political party over others
- a state legislature is so closely divided that neither political party has an advantage
- drawing a district to favor one racial group over others
Affirmative racial gerrymandering
- creation of predominately African American and minority districts whenever possible
Free rider problem
barrier to collective action bc ppl can reap the benefits of group efforts without participating
groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics
Congressional Research Service
- works for the U.S. Congress and provides nonpartisan an policy and research analysis to committees and members of both houses
contrasts with the idea of representatives as delegated who feel obligated to vote according to the views of the "folks back home" regardless of their own personal viewpoint
a group of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic
House Rules Committee
the committee in the House of Representatives that reviews most bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House
similar or identical legislation which is introduced in Senate and House
large bills that often cover several topics and may contain extraneous, or pork-barrel projects
Who runs for congress?
congress' monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings
power of the purse
congressional exclusive power to authorize expenditures by all avenues of the federal govt
advice and consent
advice and consent and confirmation of presidential appointments and treaties
governs most committee assignments and movement into committee leadership positions
federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local govts, businesses, colleges, and other institutions
activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals, particularly by cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get ppl what they think they have a right to get
a vote in which a majority of democratic legislators oppose a majority of republican legislators
- gather info through technological sources-thus having the incumbents' personal interests
- enhancing their standing w constituents through service to individuals and the district
-no name recognition
- the candidate who spends the most money tends to win
a person who advocates or supports a system of government in which several states unite under a central authority
somebody who opposed the U.S. Constitution when it was being drawn up
any member can speak for as long as he or she wants on any given use
Amendment 1 freedoms
Freedom of Religion, freedom of speech, Freedom of expression, Freedom of the Press, and Freedom of Assembly.
bill of rights
the first ten amendments to the US Constitution