Earth Science Semester Exam Study Guide/Wohlers
Terms in this set (46)
The moon has much more severe temperature fluctuations between night and day then the Earth because....
no atmosphere and no ocean
The moon has no sedimentary or metamorphic rocks on its surface. What does this tell us about its geological history?
Sedimentary- no erosion, water, etc --- Metamorphic- no volcanoes, etc
What causes the dark areas on the surface of the Moon?
Melted lava that cooled
What is unique about the Moon's period of rotation and revolution?
They are at the same rate
According to the giant-impact hypothesis, the Earth was hit by another body that was the size of
The Moon's gravity is __________ that of the Earth's.
What President committed the US to putting a man on the Moon
John F. Kennedy (JFK)
How many people have walked on the moon?
Who was the first man to walk on the moon?
What is a planet?
large body of matter that rotates around the sun
Why is Mars red?
iron oxide with soils
What is the largest Mountain on Mars?
What planet was the first to be discovered by using a telescope?
What are two major types of planets?
Terrestrial and Gaseous
What do most scientists beilive is the age of the solar system?
5 billion or 4.6 billion
What was Uranus almost named?
Why did Copernicus wait until near the end of his life to publish his theories?
afraid of persecution; he was on his death bed
What is the name of the lengthy system of canyons on Mars?
What are the 3 laws of Planetary Motion?
Planets orbit in ellipse, planets in equal areas, period squared=distance cubed
Where are most asteroids?
Between Mars and Jupiter (Asteroid Belt)
What do many scientists believe happened as a result of a large asteroid impacting on the Earth near the Yucantan Peninsula?
=dark yr=no plants=extinction of dinos
Why did people believe that there was intelligent life on mars?
saw canals on Mars
What is the difference between a planet and a moon?
orbits: Planets orbit sun, Moon orbits planets
According to most scientists, how did the solar system begin?
Clouds of dust from a nova were pushed out in "waves" to collect and form orbits
What scientist discovered the Laws of Planetary Motion?
What are constellations?
Man's imagination of star pattern grouping
What is the difference between astronomy and astrology?
Astronomy- how universal bodies effect each other
Astrology- how universal bodies effect people
Name 5 constellations that we discussed
Cassiopeia, Big Dipper, Little Dipper, Cephus, Draco
List the stages of the life of a star
protostar, Main sequence, Red Giant, Nebula, White Dwarf, Black Dwarf, Neutron star, Black Hole
What galaxy is our home?
What is the speed of light?
180,000 miles/second or 3x10^8 meters / second
What is the Big Bang Theory?
Matter expanded and universe expanded
What are two evidences for the Big Bang Theory?
Red Shift and Microwave radiation
What scientist discovered the red shift?
What scientist was hesitant to believe that the universe had a beginning?
What to scientists call the moment the Big Bang happened?
The Creation Moment or Singularity
Crystal Size in comparison to cooling rate and location
underground- slow w/ large crystals
above ground- fast/small crystals
Silicon content in comparison to color
more silicon= lighter color
less silicon= darker color
SiO4 molecular shape
Two most common elements in igneuos rocks
oxygen and silicon
Three types of sedimentary rocks
Chemical, Clastic and Carbonate or Conglomerate
Four stages of sedimentary rock formation
weathering, erosion and transportation, deposition, and lithfication (form a rock)
Eclipses (order of planets, etc)
eight planets (in order)
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (MY VERY ENTHUSIASTIC MOTHER JUST SERVED US NOODLES)
Layers of the Sun (in order)
Corona, Chromosphere, Protosphere
Moon Cycle diagram
New Moon-Waxing Crescent-First Quarter-Waxing Gibbous-FULL-Waning Gibbous-Third Quarter-Waning Crescent