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What do all living things depend on to survive?

autotroph and heterotroph

Name the two groups of organisms based on how they obtain energy.


organism that makes its own food


What is another name for a heterotroph?


organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes

plant, bacteria, tree, shrub, flowers

Name three autotrophs.


What is another name for an autotroph?

impala, lion, human, cat, dog, fish, horse, cow, buffalo, mushroom, amoeba, paramecium

Name three heterotrophs.


adenosine triphosphate; principal chemical compound that living things use to store and release energy

5-carbon sugar (ribose) with nitrogen group adenine and three phosphate groups connected to it

Explain the structure of ATP.


process of adding or removing a PHOSPHATE from ATP or ADP


What is the ultimate source of all energy on Earth?

5-carbon sugar (ribose) with nitrogen group adenine and two phosphate groups connected to it

Explain the structure of ADP.


adenosine diphosphate; energy storage group that has only TWO phosphate groups

energy is held between the second and third phosphate - when bond is broken, energy is released and when bond is created, energy is stored

Explain how ATP stores and releases energy.


process by which plants and other autotrophs use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates

plants get material to grow from water (measured mass of dirt and 5 years later found no change in mass of dirt)

What did Jan van Helmont do for the understanding of photosynthesis?

grew plants in carbon dioxide and found they thrived

What did Joseph Priestley do for the understanding of photosynthesis?

discovered that plants releases oxygen only in sunlight

What did Jan Ingenhousz do for the understanding of photosynthesis?

6CO2 + 6H2O + light + chlorophyll --> C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6O2 (oxygen)

What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and chlorophyll

What is REQUIRED for photosynthesis to occur?

glucose / sugar and oxygen

What is the end product(s) of photosynthesis?


light-absorbing molecule

absorb light

What do pigments do?


principal pigment in plants and other photosynthetic organisms

chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b

What are the two kinds of chlorophyll in plants?

in the leaves in the chloroplasts

Where specifically in a plant does photosynthesis occur?


organelle that contains the pigment chlorophyll that captures sunlight

it has stacks of flattened sacs called thylakoids (stacks are called grana) and the space between the grana is called the stroma

Describe the structure of a chloroplast.


light-collecting unit or clusters of chloroplasts

light reactions and dark reactions / Calvin cycle

Name the two stages in photosynthesis.

oxygen gas (waste), ATP, and NADPH

What is the end product(s) of light reaction?

sunlight, water, ADP, NADP+

What is needed for the light reaction?

oxygen gas

What is released as a waste in the light reaction?

light energy is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen / energy remains with the hydrogen

Explain what happens during the light reactions.


Name an electron carrier.

carry high-energy electrons along with hydrogen from chlorophyll to other compounds

What do electron carriers do?

in the chloroplasts' stroma

Where does the dark reaction (Calvin cycle) occur specifically?


Where does the light reaction occur specifically?

the warmer it is it destroys the enzymes and doesn't work / the colder it is the slower the rate is / works best at a specific temperature

How does temperature affect photosynthesis?

the more water the more photosynthesis / the less water, the slower the process / necessary for first step in photosynthesis

How does water availability affect photosynthesis?

light is NOT required for this process to take place

Why is the second stage of photosynthesis called the dark reaction?

6 carbon dioxide, ATP, NADPH

What is needed for the Calvin cycle to occur?

the more minerals the greater the rate - up to a point - maximum / to little - photosynthesis can't occur

How does mineral availability affect photosynthesis?

the greater the light intensity (more light) the faster the rate (up to maximum) / at this point more light intensity won't do anything / the less light the less photosynthesis occurs

How does light intensity affect photosynthesis?

water availability, temperature, light intensity, mineral availability

Name two of the four factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.

two glucose molecules are created and 6 five-carbon compounds

What is the end result of the Calvin cycle / dark reaction?

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