impala, lion, human, cat, dog, fish, horse, cow, buffalo, mushroom, amoeba, paramecium
Name three heterotrophs.
adenosine triphosphate; principal chemical compound that living things use to store and release energy
5-carbon sugar (ribose) with nitrogen group adenine and three phosphate groups connected to it
Explain the structure of ATP.
5-carbon sugar (ribose) with nitrogen group adenine and two phosphate groups connected to it
Explain the structure of ADP.
energy is held between the second and third phosphate - when bond is broken, energy is released and when bond is created, energy is stored
Explain how ATP stores and releases energy.
process by which plants and other autotrophs use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates
plants get material to grow from water (measured mass of dirt and 5 years later found no change in mass of dirt)
What did Jan van Helmont do for the understanding of photosynthesis?
grew plants in carbon dioxide and found they thrived
What did Joseph Priestley do for the understanding of photosynthesis?
discovered that plants releases oxygen only in sunlight
What did Jan Ingenhousz do for the understanding of photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O + light + chlorophyll --> C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6O2 (oxygen)
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
it has stacks of flattened sacs called thylakoids (stacks are called grana) and the space between the grana is called the stroma
Describe the structure of a chloroplast.
light energy is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen / energy remains with the hydrogen
Explain what happens during the light reactions.
carry high-energy electrons along with hydrogen from chlorophyll to other compounds
What do electron carriers do?
the warmer it is it destroys the enzymes and doesn't work / the colder it is the slower the rate is / works best at a specific temperature
How does temperature affect photosynthesis?
the more water the more photosynthesis / the less water, the slower the process / necessary for first step in photosynthesis
How does water availability affect photosynthesis?
light is NOT required for this process to take place
Why is the second stage of photosynthesis called the dark reaction?
the more minerals the greater the rate - up to a point - maximum / to little - photosynthesis can't occur
How does mineral availability affect photosynthesis?
the greater the light intensity (more light) the faster the rate (up to maximum) / at this point more light intensity won't do anything / the less light the less photosynthesis occurs
How does light intensity affect photosynthesis?
water availability, temperature, light intensity, mineral availability
Name two of the four factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.