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AP environmental science semester 1
Terms in this set (252)
all the differences within and between populations of species as well as between different species
All the different habitats, biological communites, and ecological processes, and variation within individual ecosystems
The change in a population's genetic makeup through successive generations. NOT INDIVIDUALS!
A new species can arise when members of a population become isolated for a long period of time
when a species goes extinct in a specific location
When a species still exists but is in such low numbers that it might as well not be there - doesn't interact with other species
species no longer found anywhere! FOREVER
many creatures become extinct over a period of time
Whenever a species goes extinct because of the natural course of life
depletion of a commercially valuable resource to a level at which it is no longer valuable to harvest it and population may not recover (wont have access like we do now $$$$)
Number of individuals so low that it may become extinct in part or all of its natural range
Still relatively abundant in numbers but declining numbers suggest it is headed towards being extinct
H in HIPPO
I in HIPPO
First P in HIPPO
Population growth (of humans)
Second P in HIPPO
Pollution (climate change)
O in HIPPO
Over-harvesting (over-exploitation). Can be due to ocean bycatch or dredging on the bottom of the ocean
Wasteful consumption of resources. As you get more developed you need more stuff, greater impact
non-targeted species caught on fishing hooks and nets
ex: long lining sharks or turtles
In Situ approaches to biodiversity loss
leaving the animal where it lives, but protecting its ecosystem by legislation ex) elephants and turtles
Ex Situ approaches to biodiversity loss
taking the animal out of its habitat and protecting it ex) zoo, egg pulling, captive breeding
economic benefits of biodiversity
ecological benefits of biodiversity
greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability; healthy ecosystems can withstand (come back from) disasters
international treaty prohibiting the trade of rare and endangered species
Authorizes the marine fishery service and US fish and wildlife service to identify and list all other endangered species. Forbids the govt. and private citizens from taking actions that destroy endangered species and/or their habitats AND trade in products made from that endangered species
A conservation law prohibiting the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines
Must harbor at least 1,500 endemic species and lost 70% of its habitat to humans, over half the world's plants. Tons of species, not a lot of land. Ex: Madagascar
preservation, protection, or restoration or the natural environment
to keep alive or safe from harm
the action of remedying something, in particular of reversing or stopping environmental damage.
the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters.
removal of pollution of contaminants from environmental media like soil, ground water, etc...
Law of the Sea Convention
A body of customs, treaties, and international agreements by which governments maintain order, productivity, and peaceful relations on the sea
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
is the primary law governing marine fisheries management in U.S. federal waters, first passed in 1976, it fosters long-term biological and economic sustainability of the nation's marine fisheries out to 200 nautical miles from shore
marine mammals protection act
Protects all marine animals from hunting, capture, and harassment
migratory bird hunting stamp act
requires each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older to possess a valid Federal hunting stamp.
National forest management act
requires the Secretary of Agriculture to assess forest lands, develop a management program based on multiple-use, sustained-yield principles, and implement a resource management plan for each unit of the National Forest System. It is the primary statute governing the administration of national forests.
national park act
Protects and governs land in the US so that native species can thrive
wild and scenic rivers act
to preserve certain rivers with outstanding natural, cultural, and recreational values in a free-flowing condition for the enjoyment of present and future generations
National Wilderness Preservation System and recognized wilderness as "an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain."
What factors determine biome type?
1. amount of rainfall 2. temperature 3. soil
climate and vegetation will vary
what is a biome
large, terrestrial regions characterized by similar climate, soil, plants and animals, regardless of where they are found in the world
percent of liquid freshwater available to organisms
how are aquatic biomes organized?
salt (NaCl) content. Saltwater and freshwater
weakly swimming, free floating.
(plants/algae, support web),
(animals/herbivors/single-celled protozoa to large inverts like jellyfish),
(super tiny/responsible for 70% of the primary productivity at oceans oxygen surface)
strong swimming consumers, (turtles, fish, whales)
bottom dwellers (barnacle, bacteria, lobsters)
made of estuaries(where saltwater meets fresh) and coastal wetlands(river mouths, inlets, bays, sounds, etc..). Very productive: nutrient input from land, circulation by tides, lots of producers and sunlight. Vital: filter toxic pollutants, reduce storm damage by absorbing waves and excess water, provide food, habitats, and nursery sites for species
Area of shoreline that includes high and low tide; Problems creatures face: predators, water or not, waves, temperature and salinity
human impact on coral reef
fertilizer runoff, mangrove destruction, bleaching, etc...
what is a coral reef
A type of barrier island formed by a community of living things-cnidarians which deposit a hard calciferous shell. Shells become homes for various organisms, but are extremely delicate and very vulnerable to physical stresses.
includes 1. euphotic zone 2. bathyal zone 3. abyssal zone
(ocean) upper zone, most light, low pressure, warmer water, low nutrients, how oxygen levels
(ocean) middle, dusky
(ocean)lowest, dark, cold water, lots on nutrients
lentic system (standing freshwater)
-lakes, ponds, wetlands,
-zones defined by distance and depth
- lake is stratified in summer and winter
: poorly nourished, clear;
: green, well nourished, organic material)
(lake) shallow, plants, warmer, sides of lake(shoreline)
(lake) open, offshore area, most photosynthesis
(lake) deep, open water, too dark for photosynthesis
(lake) bottom of lake, detrius feeders
, organic material
Lotic (flowing) freshwater lake:
turbulence created O2, colder water, higher velocity
Lotic (flowing) freshwater lake:
plant created O2, most nutrients, warm water, slower, most creatures
importance of wetlands
Money to be made by problem solvers, tourist love to pay to keep their beaches not deserted and dead, reduce flooding so less money to be spent on repairs
importance of wetlands
filter wastes, reduce flooding, provide habitats
(polar grassland). ice cold. wolves, foxes, polar bear. moss, grass, trees.
(boreal coniferous forest). snow in winter, hot and humid in summer. moose, bears, wolves. variety of trees
ex: north america, eurasia
temperate deciduous forest
average temp 50F. Squirrel, rabbit, bird, deer. oaks, moss, shrubs.
ex: eureka mo
The North West part of the US Mainland, not as dense as a tropical rain forest, but looks similar. A bit colder as well, and less moist and humid. elks, birds. variety of trees
a broadleaf evergreen forest found in wet and hot regions near the equator. HUMID. biodiversity
biome characterized by deep, nutrient-rich soil that supports many grass species. makes up most of the central part of the continental United States
tropical grassland (savanna)
grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate. Lions, zebra
temperate coastal biome dominated by dense evergreen shrubs. mild, rainy winter; hot, dry summer
ex: california, oregon, south africa
can be hot or cold, but is always dry. contains few plants & animals. land with a sustained and significant moisture deficit
average weather in an area over a long period of time
A local area's short-term physical conditions such as temperature and precipitation
factors that determine climate
global air circulation is affected by (4)
the uneven heating of the earth's surface by solar energy
season changes in temp and precipitation
rotation of the earth on its axis
the properties of land, water and air
what causes seasons
the variations in the amount of solar energy reaching the earth creates seasons in the N and S hemisphere
what is the coriolis effect
as the earth rotates, it's surface moves much faster at the equator than in mid-latitude and polar regions.
turning of the earth creates trade winds that distribute heat and moisture in the atmosphere
Clockwise is N hemisphere; counterclockwise in S hemisphere
how do convection currents work
Warm, moist air rises, cools releases moisture and heat, and Dense cool, dry air sinks, picks up moisture and heat by the Earth's surface
what are the major global convection cells and where are they found
polar cells (60 degrees), hadley cells (0 to 30 degrees), ferrel cells (30 to 60 degrees)
how does greenhouse effect work?
gases in the atmosphere act like a piece of glass wrapped around the planet, sun's rays pass through these gases and warm the earth, warming planet gives off heat energy which radiates towards space, some of this outgoing radiation does not pass through the atmosphere, traps more heat
keeping the planet 33 degrees warmer
: methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons
created by temp. and salt changes, when 2 masses of different densities collide, the lower density will move shallow, causing a subsurface current
The general winds that go in different directions depending on where we are on the latitude line
lake turnover but in the ocean, The movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface
"Normal year" v. "El Nino year"
dry in Peru and Chile, warm, wet tropical conditions in Indonesia and Australia, water pools near coast of Australia
El Nino Year:
the wind directions change in the pacific ocean, goes from Australia getting warm and moist to South America getting warm and moist, water pools where it's warmer and changes with El Nino
"Normal year" v. "La Nina year"
La Nina Year: stronger than normal trade winds, more fish and upwelling near Australia
Climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area. bricks and building absorb heat, hotter in cities
The yearly rising and sinking of cold and warm water layers in a lake. Lake is stratified in summer and winter. Nutrients rise to the top, gets oxygen to the bottom
plant involved (tree roots and lichens)
water, acids, gases. chemical reactions
wind, rain, thermal expansion and contraction, water freezing.
the mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals
the process of eroding or being eroded
by wind, water, or other natural agents.
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
ex: basalt, granite
formed by layered igneous rock that has been broken down(weathered) and deposited in layers over time
ex: coal, limestone
igneous or sedimentary rock that has been changed by heat and pressure
ex: limestone turns to marble
divergent plate boundaries
Areas where plates
from each other, forming either mid oceanic ridges or rift valleys. causes magma to blow up
where tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other. most on oceanic floor. CALIFORNIA
convergent plate boundary
an area where plates move toward one another and collide.
: continental less dense so rises above oceanic; oceanic pushed down(subduction zone- grinding heat, rock to magma).
: a trench usually forms, also causes island arc.
: push up mountain ranges
fixed places in the mantle or oceanic lithosphere where rocks melt to generate magma, (Hawaii) volcanic islands, not considered plate movement
One plate going under another plate
sudden release of stored energy.
: earth's crust broke due to movement.
: in conjunction w/ volcanic activity.
: in underground caverns and mines.
: nuclear and chemical forces. Point of origin is the focus; where is ends up on land (most strongly felt) is the epicenter
a device that detects and measures the strength of an earthquake
plastic bag life cycle
platic created in china, shiped to the us, goes in grocery store where it's now a bag, someone throws it away or is lazy and drops it, if flys around with the wind until it reaches the ocean, gets stuck, or gets RECYCLED OR REUSED, if it goes to the ocean (North Pacific Gyre) fish, choke, die, or get stuck in them.
study of interactions between organisms and their environment
everywhere things can live
large area with characteristics, plants, animals, and climate
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
all the living and non-living things in an environment, including their interactions with each other
assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Organisms are classified into species based characteristics and ability to inbreed
3 things that sustain life on earth
1. solar energy
2. cycling of matter
organisms that make their own food (mostly through photosynthesis)
When producers convert sunlight into glucose=energy (Equation: 6H2O + 6CO2 + Sunlight--> C6H6O6 + 6CO2)
some organisms such as deep ocean bacteria draw energy from hydrothermal wents and produce carbohydrates from hydrogen sulfide gas
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms. can't produce it's own food
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
organism that obtains energy by eating animals
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
HAS A MOUTH and eats dead things
NO MOUTH breaks down dead stuff
cellular (Aerobic) respiration
organisms break down carbohydrates and other organic compounds in their cells to obtain the energy they need.
(backwards photosynthesis): C6H1206 + 6O2 -------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy
Some decomposers get energy by breaking down glucose (or other organic compounds) in the absence of oxygen -fermentation
first law of thermodynamics
Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
second law of thermodynamics
when energy is transformed the quality of energy remains the same but it's ability to do work diminishes
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
3 most productive ecosystems
swamps and marshes, estuaries(aquatic), and tropical rainforest
gross primary productivity
the entire photosynthetic production of organic compounds in a ecosystem
net primary productivity
the organic materials that remain after photosynthetic organisms in then ecosystem have used some of these compounds for their cellular energy needs
net primary productivity formula
net primary= gross - respiration(carbon lost during respiration)
pyramid of biomass
total dry weight of all organisms in a ecosystem's level @ any time
pyramid of energy
shows the amount energy available at each trophic level in jules or kilokaleries
pyramid of numbers
graphic representation of the actual # of organisms living at each trophic level
high quality matter vs. low quality matter
High-quality matter is very pure and concentrated; very useful. Low-quality matter is impure, disordered, and dilute; not useful at all.
how humans impact the water cycle
1. Withdrawl large amounts of freshwater from rivers, aquifers. 2. polluting surface and underground water with fertilizer and plastic
an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
a body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater.
the process by which moisture is carried through plants where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
the process in which water is filtered (through groundwater and into seepage)
plant roots sucking up water from the ground
Any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface RAIN:)
the upper surface of underground water
; the upper boundary of the zone of saturation
water stored beneath the Earth's surface
how humans impact the nitrogen cycle
1. Adding gases (driving cars) which contribute to acid rain 2. contaminating ground water from nitrate ions with inorganic fertilizer.
atmospheric gas is converted in to ammonia (NH3) or ammonium (NH4) by bacteria in the soil or legume plants(nodules), lightning, or industry
ammonia is oxidized to form Nitrite (NO2) or Nitrate (N03) which is used by plants
nitrate used as nutrients for plants (to make proteins and acids) which are eaten by people or animals
animals metabolize proteins and form ammonia (pee, die, or decompose)
nitrates broken down by denitrifying bacteria and return to atmosphere as gas
how humans impact the phosphorus cycle
1. Add excess phosphates to water systems from runoff and animal wastes and fertilizers 2. remove large amounts of phosphate from the earth to make fertilizer.
bird poop, rich in phosphorus
(fish eats phosphorus rich bacteria in ocean--> bird eats fish----> guano)
how is the phosphorus cycle different than the other cycles?
it does have an atmospheric phase
which nutrient is most likely limiting factor in a ecosystem?
how humans impact the sulfur cycle
1. we burn coal and oil( full of sulfur) 2. when we make copper and lead (goes into the atmosphere-acid rain)
how humans impact the carbon cycle
1. Driving cars(polluting air) 2. burning fossil fuels
what brings carbon down to earth
what sends carbon into the atmoshpere
cellular respiration, forest fires, factory emissions
what are major carbon sinks
plants, ocean, soil, rocks!!!
naturally in an area
accidentally or deliberately introduced to an area
have a much larger effect on the types and abundance of species in a community than their numbers would suggest, eliminating this species dramatically alters an ecosystem, help determine the types and numbers of other species in a community thereby helping to sustain it
Early indicators of stress or damage to an ecosystem
can create and enhance habitats that can benefit other species in a community (elephants, beavers)
every job they COULD have, place to live, things to eat in a ecosystem. fun to do all
to survive and avoid competition a species usually occupies only part on it's fundamental niche. actually right now. real life 1 thing.
between members of 2 or more species
species that have broad niches, such as flies, cockroaches, raccoons, humans. high range of tolerance
between members of the same species
species that have narrow niches, such as giant panda, some shorebirds
r selected species
large number of smaller offspring with little parental care, oppurtunists, generalists, bad competitors
k selected species
fewer larger offspring with higher invested parental care, reproduce later in life, good competitors, specialists, reproduce later in life
competitive exclusion principle
No two species occupy the exact same niche in the same place at the same time.
Some species develop adaptations that allow them to reduce or avoid competition for resources with other species
An interaction in which one organism kills another for food.
adaptations of predators
Predators may develop keen senses (hearing, smell, etc), speed, intelligence, and venom in order to better catch prey
adaptations of prey
Prey may also develop methods in order to avoid predators, such as camoflage, warning coloration, chemical defenses, and may also assemble in groups
a close relationship between 2 different species
A relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is harmed
ex: ticks and humans
one benefits the other doesn't care
ex: orchids grow by trees
both are benefiting
ex: clown fish and sea anenome
The gradual change of species composition in a given area
starts WITHOUT dirt. pioneer species are first to colonize an area.
ex: lichens on bare rock
starts WITH soil. natural community has been disturbed. natural disaster
first to colonize an area
ex: lichens on bare rock, moss, grasses, weeds
A diagram that shows where the population is (pre-reprodcutive, post-reproductive, and reproductive age) and how it's growing (rapidly, slowly, population stable, declining)
the number of births in a population in a certain amount of time
crude birth rate
births per 1,000
crude death rate
deaths per 1,000
cultural carrying capacity
max population of a certain species a habitat can sustain indefinitely w/o degrading it
The number of deaths in a population in a certain amount of time
graph of stages of a populations births, death, and total amount
allows couples to determine the number and spacing of their children. reduces fertility rate
total fertility rate
the average # of children a typical woman has
infant mortality rate
The percentage of children who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
(B + I) - (D + E)
replacement level fertility
the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2)
the number of children born to a woman in her entire lifetime
world's 3 most populated countries
1. China 2. India 3. U.S
annual % growth rate equation
70/doubling time (years)
% change equation
((new-original)/original) x 100
natural rate of increase/decrease equation
doubling time equation
70 / % change
how has the global fertility rate changed since 1955
dropped from about 6 to 2?
9 factors that affect birth rates and fertility rates
1. religious culture
2. lack of education
3. manual labor help
4. rights of women
5. want male babies
6. cultural norm
7. infant mortality
8. economic cost
9. cost of raising
why are there more boys than girls in some countries
preferences of male babies, one child policy
what are environmental refugees and how are there numbers changing
Environmental refugees are people who were forced out of their homes because of environmental issues at home and they're numbers are growing exponentially
What factors could hinder some less-developed countries from making this transition?
their rapid growth cannot keep up with economic growth
ex: africa with aids epidemic
Explain how the reduction of poverty and empowerment of women can help countries to slow their population growth
Once a women feels empowered she can choose whether or not to have kids or how many. Also, if poverty is reduce there is less of a need for labor so that's one less reason to have kids.
Summarize India's efforts to control its population growth.
Financial incentives for sterilization, increased education.
Summarize China's efforts to control its population growth.
one child policy
cancer causing agents
The amount of a substance ingested at one time
dose response curve
The relationship between the amount of the dosage, and the pharmaceutical effect
Infections that have recently appeared within a population.
a disease that is newly discovered or was absent in human populations for at least 20 years.
A disease that is caused by a pathogen and that can be spread from one individual to another.
a disease that is not caused by living organisms & does not spread from one person to another
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
type and amount of health damage from exposure
possibility of suffering harm
risk analysis- analysis of how risky
scientific assessment of how much harm will be caused to a human
Decides whether or how to reduce the risk and to what level, at what cost
cause harm to a fetus
Can cause temporary or permanent harm or death
the degree to which a substance is harmful.
looks at the effect of harmful chemicals on humans, wildlife, ecosystems
diseases caused by living organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. Can spread from person to person. (Examples; Tuberculosis, HIV, Hepatitis B, West Nile)
hazardous chemical: Flamables, explosives, irritants, things that interfere with oxygen intake, allergens, (mutagens, teratogens, carcinogens)
fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption, flood, tornado, hurricane
smoking, unsafe working conditions, poverty, unsafe sex
Choices you make with your life (could affect your health)
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
5 factors that have contributed to genetic resistance in bacteria to commonly used antibiotics
1.over-prescription of antibiotics
2. patients not finishing the entire antibiotic course
3. over use of antibiotics in livestock and fish farming
4. poor infection control in health care settings
5.poor hygiene and sanitation
highly contagious and often severe viral infection of the respiratory tract. characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue.
(Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.) transfer of fluids, sharing needles. dry cough, fatigue, loss of appetite, medicine helps
west nile virus
spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito
A disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood. muscle pain, fever and chills, vomiting. antibiotics help
a contagious bacterial infection that usually affects the lungs. travels through the air. coughing, unwanted weight loss, chest pain.
a type of toxin released from hazardous waste.
harm the nervous system. (brain) Mercury- hormonally active agent
Hormonally active agents
attached to estrogen receptor molecules
DDT, Mercury, herbicides
cosmetics, lotion, perfume, endocrine disruptors
What are three factors that affect the level of harm caused by a chemical
Dosage, length of time exposed, and age of exposee (ex babies are more at risk than adults)
Recommended textbook explanations
Environmental Science: Sustaining Your World
G. Tyler Miller, Scott E. Spoolman
Environmental Science: Your World, Your Turn (Florida)
Jay H. Withgott
Environmental Science: Your World, Your Turn
Jay H. Withgott
Holt Environmental Science
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