early american presidents test pt 2
Terms in this set (73)
who believed in a loose constitution?
what is the belief in a loose constitution?
belief that you can use the implied powers as long as it doesn't go against the constitution
alexander hamilton used the implied powers to create the __________________
who believed in a strict constitution?
what is the belief in a strict constitution?
the belief that the government should only use the implied powers if absolutely necessary
what rebellion was the whiskey rebellion similar to?
why did the whiskey rebellion happen?
-hamilton put excise tax on whiskey to make up for tariffs being low
-farmers in western pennsylvania refused to pay and attacked revenue collectors
how was the whiskey rebellion stopped?
-washington federalized 15,000 state militiamen and placed them under the command of alexander hamilton
-show of force caused the rebellion to end w almost no bloodshed
why was the whiskey rebellion controversial?
-some people applauded how Washington stopped the rebellion
-westerners argued that the military action taken was an unwarranted use of force against the common people
who were the federalists led by?
what did the federalists believe in?
-strong national government
-creation of national bank
what was the federalists views on the french revolution?
wanted to stay neutral
who were the republicans led by?
what is another name for the republicans?
what did the republicans believe in?
-increased state rights
-agricultural based society
what were the republicans views on the french revolution
-believed the french revolution was just like the american revolution
-argued that bc britain was seizing american merchant ships bound for french ports the us should join france in its defensive war against britain
who assisted washington in writing his farewell address?
what are enumerated powers?
powers directly stated in the constitution
what are implied powers?
powers not directly stated in constitution but are allowed through the elastic clause
who won the election of 1800?
what is the popular opinion of thomas jefferson during the election?
he is a francophile (person who greatly admires the french)
what is a tariff?
tax on imports or exports
who wants thomas jefferson to get hamilton to endorse him?
who does hamilton endorse in the election of 1800?
why does hamilton endorse jefferson and not burr?
jefferson has morals and ideals and burr does not
who are war hawks?
people who push for war
what is the cabinet?
officials who lead the major departments of the executive branch (advise the president)
what were the original departments of the cabinet
1. attorney general
2. secretary of war
3. secretary of state
4. secretary of treasury
who was the first attorney general under george washington?
who was the first secretary of war under george washington?
who was the first secretary of state under george washington?
who was the first secretary of treasury under george washington?
what is the job of the attorney general?
chief law officer- in charge of legal aspects
what is the job of the secretary of war?
responsible for military and naval affairs
what is the job of the secretary of state?
deals with relations with foreign countries
what is the job of the secretary of treasury?
deals with financial issues in the us- debt, taxes, trade, etc
who were the "midnight judges"
-judges appointed by John Adams during the very last hours of his presidency
-ex= william marbury
what was jays treaty?
-completed in 1795
-britain kept raiding american merchant ships so washington sent john jay to london to negotiate on behalf of the us
-gave much to britain and almost nothing to america
-no punishment for british
-some money provided to america for compensation
-britain opened its west indies islands to american trade(size of ship restricted)
-britain agree to remove its troops from american territory near the great lakes
-failed to recognize america as a neutral nation
what was the alien act?
authorized the president to deport aliens considered dangerous and to detain enemy aliens during times of war
what was the sedition act?
made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize president or congress and imposed fines or imprisonment for editors who violated it
what was the name of the leader of the Indian Rebellion?
who explored the land purchased in the louisianna purchase the first time?
louis and clark
what is the term for not picking a side (in war)
what president passed the embargo act in 1807?
when did jefferson repeal the embargo act of 1807?
1809- final days of his presidency
what was the problem with the embargo act?
-destroyed american economy
-britain was able to get supplies from other nations
what was the embargo act of 1807?
prohibited american merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port
key points about embargo act political cartoon
-on the left= thomas jefferson
-other guy= man trying to export goods (smuggler)
-turtle is trying to stop guy from trading but isn't doing a good job
-turtles name= ograbme which is embargo backwards
-message: the embargo act wasn't effective, hurt american economy
who were the barbary pirates?
-off of north african coast
-under rule of ottomans
-seized american merchant ships
-demanded sums as bribes
what was the problem with the barbary pirates?
-ruler of tripoli demanded higher sums from jefferson
-jefferson refused- built up navy
-fought on and off for four years (1801-1805)
what was the case of marbury vs. madison?
-jefferson wanted to block all federalist judge appointments made by adams (midnight judges)
-william marbury sued for commission
-case went to the supreme court
after the case of marbury vs. madison went to the supreme court, what was the ruling
-judge john marshall ruled marbury had right to commission due to the judiciary act
-however marshall ruled the judiciary act gave the court more power than the constitution, ruled it unconstitutional
-marshall established the doctrine of judicial review
what is judicial review?
-supreme court could decide whether an act of congress or president went against the constitution
-could deem something unconstitutional
-supreme court could overrule actions of the other two branches
when did the louisiana purchase happen?
april 30, 1803
what was the louisiana purchase?
-jefferson sent delegates to france to discuss purchasing new orleans for $10 million
-napolean offered whole louisiana territory for $15 million
-america agreed to the frenchs deal
why did the french give americans such a deal?
they were seeking funds for a war against britain
why was the louisiana purchase so controversial?
-no clause in the constitution stated a president could purchase foreign land
-jefferson used the elastic clause to purchase the land
-using the elastic clause went against jeffersons ideals- said the elastic clause was only used in desperate times that were necessary and proper
who was the kentucky resolution declared by?
who was the virginia resolution declared by?
what did the kentucky and virginia resolutions declare?
-all states entered into a "compact" when forming the national government
-if any act of the federal government broke the compact the state could nullify the law
what does nullify mean?
what was the XYZ affair
-americans angered that us merchant ships were being seized by the french
-adams sent a delagtion to paris to negotiate
-french ministers (X,Y,Z) requested bribes to enter negotiations
-americans heard news of requests and wanted war
-adams wanted to build up army and navy, jefferson did not
-adams wanted gw to lead- jefferson feared he was too old and would differ to ah
what was jefferson's views on the alien and sedition acts?
-people fought for these freedoms and adams is taking it away- passing it will blacken his rep
-passing them tramples on the constitution
-states will resist
during adams presidency who caused conflict within the federalist party?
alexander hamilton- some people liked him, some people hated him
who did adams remove from his cabinet?
james mchenry and timothy pickering
why did adams remove men from his cabinet?
-both wanted hamilton to take place as vice president
-adams asked for immediate resignation but they refused so he removed them
how did adams feel towards jefferson towards the end of his presidency?
-leaves in the middle of the night so he doesn't have to go to inauguration
what were some precedents washinton set during his presidency?
1. refer to the president as "mr president"
2. national gov assume state debts- national bank
3. made washington dc capital
4. ended the whiskey rebellion by show of force
5. made america neutral
6. set the amount of terms to two (many future presidents resigned after two terms)
key points in washingtons farewell address
-include everyone in the country
-you must have a union for liberty and liberty for a union
-political parties will end up taking the power away from people
-political parties help keep the government in check
-nation is too weak to get involved in foreign affairs- don't do politics only do business
-foreign relations is the reason for disputes (isolationism)
causes of the war of 1812
-americans believed the british aided tecumseh in the indian rebellion
-british were seizing american ships and forcing american merchants to serve for them
-violation of americas neutrality
how is credit established?
how fast you pay off debts
what was hamilton's financial plan?
1. pay off national debt at face value and have the national gov assume war debts
2. protect the nations new and developing industries- collect adequate revenues by collecting high tariffs (taxes) on imported goods- if ppl dont import as much=more business for american industries
3. create a national bank for depositing government funds and printing bank notes that would provide the basis for a stable us currency
-jefferson argued the constitution didn't give the power to create national bank
-hamilton argued the elastic clause did- washington passed it
-privately owned but chartered by the federal government
-federal gov (major shareholder) could print paper currency and use federal deposits to stimulate business