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APES Chapter 1 & 2
Terms in this set (53)
Exponential Population Growth
In a which a quantity increases at a constant rate per unit of time such as 2% a year.
Between 1950 and 2004, the world's population increased exponentially from 2.5 billion to 6.4 billion, can increase to 8-12 billion by the end of the century
From around the 2000's, the exponential population growth grows (shaped like a J)
Plays a key role in population growth, resource use and waste, poverty, loss of biological diversity and global climate change
A biological science that studies the relationships between living organisms and their enviroment
An interdisciplinary study that uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to learn how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal with environmental problems
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support systems for us and other species
Consists of natural resources and ecological services that support and sustain the earth's life and economies
Population control, nutrient recycling, climate control, pollution control, waste treatmemnt, biodiversity, pest and disease control
Water, air, soil, energy, minerals
Renewable supplies of wood, fish, grassland for grazing, and underground water
Environmentally Sustainable Society
Meets the current needs of its people for food, clean water, clean air, shelter, and other basic resources without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their needs
Living off natural income replenished by soils, plants, air, and water capital and not depleting or degrading the earth's natural capital that supplies this biological income
The rate at which the world is growing
1.25% a year
The Rule of 70
It states that to find the doubling time of a quantity growing at a given annual percentage rate, divide the percentage number into 70 to obtain the approximate number of years required to double. For example, at a 10% annual growth rate, doubling time is 70 / 10 = 7 years.
Year of 2004:
219,000 people a day or 9,100 an hour
Gross Domestic Product
The annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country
Include the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and the countries of Europe. (1.2 billion people)
Include Africa, Asia, and Latin America (5.2 billion people) Low income countries
When we exceed a renewable resource's natural replacement rate, the available supply begins to shrink. Ex: Pollution
Tragedy of the Commons
The degradation of renewable free-access resources
Supplying each person with renewable resources and absorbing the wastes from such resource use creates a large ecological footprint or environmental impact
Point sources (pollution)
Single, identifiable sources. Ex: The drian pipe of a factory or an exhaust pipe of a car
Non point sources (pollution)
Dispersed and often difficult to identify. Ex: pesticides sprayed into the air
Reduces or eliminates the production of pollution
Involves cleaning up or diluting pollutants after they have been produced
5 Environmental Provlems
Population growth, wasteful resource use, poverty, poor environmental accounting, and ecological ignorance
Relationship between poverty and environmental problems
Poverty is a major threat to human health and the environment. Poor people desperately degrade natural resources to survive
Used to describe the unsustainable addiction to over consumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the US and other developed countries
Can affluence help the environment?
Affluent countries have more money for improving environment quality
I= P x A x T
Environmental impact of population = population times consumption per person (affluence) times technological impact per unit of consumption
How you think the world works, what you think your role in the world should be, and what you believe is right and wrong environmental behavior
The process of social, economic, and environmental global changes that lead to an increasingly interconnected world. Involves increasing exchanges of people, products, services, capital, and ideas across international borders
Why does it make more sense to practice pollution prevention?
It works better and is cheaper than cleanup.
Between 1870 and 1875, at least 2.5 million bison were slaughtered every year. In 1905, 16 people formed the American Bison Society to protect and rebuild the population.
Hunter-gatherer societies environmental impacts
Three major cultural changes have occurred: the agricultural revolution, the industrial medical revolution, and the information and globalization revolution
Involved a gradual move from usually nomadic hunting and gathering groups to settled agricultural communities in which people domesticated wild animals and cultivated wild plants
Slash and burn cultivation
Cutting down trees and other vegetation in a patch of forest, leaving the cut vegetation on the ground to dry, and burning it. The ashes that are left add nutrients to the nutrient poor soils found in most tropical areas.
a type of farming in which most of the produce (subsistence crop) is consumed by the farmer and his family, leaving little or nothing to be marketed
Involved the shift from dependence on renewable wood (with supplies dwindling in some areas because of unsustainable cutting) and flowing water to dependence on machines running on nonrenewable fossil fuels
Native Americans' relationship with the environment
Native Americans living in North America for at least 10,000 years had a fairly low environmental impact.
Frontier era characteristics
European settlers saw the continent as a vast frontier to conquer and settle. They viewed most of the continent as having vast and in exhaustible resources
Was alarmed at the loss of numerous
wild species from his native eastern Massachusetts. To gain a better understanding of nature, he built a cabinin the woods on Walden Pond
a scientist and member of Congress from Vermont, published Man and Nature, which helped legislators and citizens see the need for resource conservation. Marsh questioned the idea that the country's resources were inexhaustible. He also used scientific studies and case studies to show how the rise and fall of past civilizations were linked to the use and misuse of their resource base.
In 1892, nature preservationist and activist John Muir founded the Sierra Club. He becamethe leader of the preservationist movement that called for protecting large areas of wilderness on public lands
from human exploitation, except for low-impact recreational activities such as hiking and camping.
Pinchot pioneered scientific management of forest resources on public lands
During his presidency he established
wildlife reserves and more than tripled the size of the national forest reserves.
Allows the president to protect areas of scientific or historical interest on federal lands as national monuments. Roosevelt used this act to protect the Grand Canyon and other areas that would later become national parks.
Roosevelt persuaded Congress to enact federal government programs to provide
jobs and restore the country's degraded environment. Ex: CCC, put 2 million people to work on the environment
published Silent Spring, which
documented the pollution of air, water, and wildlife from pesticides such as DDT (Individuals Matter, right). This influential book helped broaden the concept of resource conservation to include preservation.
In 1964 Congress passed the Wilderness Act, inspired by the vision of John Muir more than 80 years earlier. It authorized the government to protect undeveloped tracts of public land as part of the National
Wilderness System, unless Congress later decides they are needed for the national good. Land in this system is to be used only for nondestructive forms of recreation such as hiking and camping.
Spaceship-earth environmental worldview
It reminded us that we live on a marvelous planetary spaceship (Terra I) that we should not harm because it is the only home we have.
Is best known as a strong proponent of land ethics, a philosophy in which humans as part of nature have an ethical responsibility to preserve wild nature.
Was very responsive to environmental concerns. He persuaded Congress to create the Department of Energy to develop a long-range energy strategy to reduce the country's heavy dependence on
imported oil. In 1980, Carter helped create a Superfund as part of the Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation,
and Liability Act to clean up abandoned hazardous waste sites, including the Love Canal near Niagara Falls, New York.
In 1993, Bill Clinton (a Democrat, born 1946) became president and promised to provide national and global environmental leadership. During his 8 years in office he appointed respected environmentalists to key positions in environmental and resource agencies and consulted with environmentalists about environmental policy, as Carter did.
George W. Bush #2
He appointed to key federal positions people who opposed or wanted to weaken many existing environmental and public land use laws and policies. Also like Reagan, he did not consult with environmental groups and leaders
in developing environmental policies, and he greatly increased private energy and mineral development and timber cutting on public lands. Bush weakened protections on almost as much public lands as Teddy
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