ACT Prep (Reading)
Terms in this set (130)
11. The authors attitude toward the main subject of the passage can best be described as:
A. complete fascination
B. reasoned concern
C. mild interest
D. detached appreciation
12. According to the passage, CRISPR is considered the:
F. only precise form of genetic engineering.
G. least dangerous gene therapy.
H. most effective type of genetic modification.
J. easiest genome editing technique to use
13. As it is used in line 36, the phrase weighing up most nearly means:
C. measuring out
14. The passage states that compared to current gene therapies, germ-line alternations are:
F. much more risky
G. much less risky
H. ethically accepted
J. more efficient
15. The word manipulated, as it is used in line 57, most nearly means which of the following?
16. according to the passage, most regulators do NOT allow genetic modifications on:
F. the human germ-line
G. any human cells
H. non-inheritiable cells.
J. most plants
17. One of the main purposes of the final paragraph is to:
A. prove that proposed genetic alterations are safe
B. describe potential uses for genetic modifications
C. summarize the negative possibilities associated with genetically modifying animals
D.outline one of the major concerns about the adoption of genome editing
18.In lines 50-54, the authors refers to /Gattaca/ and /Brave New World/ most likely to emphasize that:
F. the types of genetic engineering they depict are currently possible using CRISPR
G. Changes to human genes that were once impossible could become achievable
H. works of fiction can influence the use of genome editing in modern society.
J. the altered human traits demonstrated in these works are highly contentious
19. It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that:
A. some types of genetic modification are allowed on plants but not humans.
B. CRISPR is the only method scientist use for genome editing
C. the demand for germ-like alterations has led to numerous scientific breakthroughs
D. no genome editing research is currently performed in the United States
20. The passage indicates that CRISPR and genome editing could lead to both:
F. decreased research on genetic diseases and new moral questions.
G. potential health benefits for humans and expanded ethical debates
H. the selection of desirable genetic traits and fewer gene therapies.
J. more genetically modified crops and fewer restrictions on their use
1. Which of the following can we infer describes the
A. A traveler on a visit to the town of Mercer
B. A former resident of Mercer recollecting the town
C. A current townsperson residing in Mercer
D. A poet who says people wont choose to die in
2. What attribute of the lace does NOT make it a
fitting metaphor for the ideas being expressed in
paragraph 1 (lines 1-13)?
F. its frailty
G. its complexity
H. its color
J. its thickness
3. Based on the circumstantial description in the
passage as a whole, what substance can we infer is
most likely being mined in the town of Mercer?
4. The recollections of the narrator are best described
as which of the following?
5. Which of the following can we infer that the
narrator would most likely believe about the nature of
A. Mental processes alone are not real; there must be
B. Mental processes alone can be real; the physical
reality needs no longer to exist
C. Mental events are the only reality
D. Physical events are the only reality
6. The metaphorical comparison between light and the
tide in lines 76-81 is best paraphrased as which of the
F. Just as the light of memories fades over time, so the
tide will eventually return waters to the sea
G. Just as the light fades throughout the day, so the
tide will provide new life at night
H. Just as light disappears over time, so the tide will
disappear when it hits the land
J. Just as the light of memories can clearly be seen, so
too is the ocean clear when the tide comes in
7. In line 64, to what do the words "desolate zeroes"
A. Numbers in the night sky
B. The glow of the rotating Ferris wheel
C. The shapes of the incandescent bulbs
D. The white-hot glow of furnaces
8. How might we infer that the "starlight" referred to
in lines 75-76 most like the narrator's memory of
F. It can still be perceived although it is not there
G. It is extremely far away in both time and distance
H. The initial source of the light and memory is
J. Perception of both is easiest at night time
9. Throughout the passage, scientific analogies to
which of the following scientific fields are most
10. As it is used in line 43, what does the word "mad"
most nearly mean?
11. We can infer that one of Cohn's contemporaries,
as discussed in the passage, would likely NOT have
written an article by which of the following titles?
A. The Mona Lisa - the story of the world's most
B. Michelangelo - A brief biography of the
quintessential Renaissance artist
C. King Francis I - an analysis of the decisions of
France's first Renaissance King
D. The Underclass - who were the poor in
12. The tone of the passage can best be described as
which of the following?
F. formal and condescending
G. serious and subjective
H. objective and balanced
J. ironic and pedantic
13. In Paragraph 2 (lines 15-37) what does the author
suggest is the clearest relationship between researchers
Cohn and Kelly?
A. Kelly inspired Cohn, yet Cohn disagrees with
B. Kelly taught Cohn, and Cohn is one of Kelly's
C. Kelly disagrees with Cohn on the type of historical
topics worth investigating
D. Cohn agrees with Kelly on the historical topics of
interest, and continues her approach with his research
14. Which of the following would NOT reinforce the
scholarly tendency outlined in lines 9-14 in popular
F. A book about the Queens of England
G. A film about how aristocrats responded during the
Hundred Years War
H. A television program that chronicled the lives of
the servants to Queen Elizabeth
J. A magazine article about how Popes and church
leaders confronted the Reformation
15. Assuming that all of the choices are true, which of
the following makes Cohn's approach to historical
research in his area of interest more challenging?
A. The lack of reliable quantitative data from the
B. The lack of accurate primary source personal
accounts of historical episodes
C. The lack of precise military statistics from
D. The lack of female historians in society during the
16. What is the author's purpose in mentioning "wages
series or ratios of criminal indictment" in lines 28-29?
F. To provide examples of the type of information that
historians found less credible
G. To provide examples of the types of stories that
readers found uninteresting
H. To contrast historical and economic research
J. To give instances of biased historical primary sources
17. The author of the passage would most likely
advocate an approach to history that was:
A. Quantitative and focused
B. Personal and interpretive
C. Comprehensive and balanced
D. Qualitative and contemporary
18. Based on lines 70-73, why might we infer that the
author considers statistics about male infanticide (i.e.
the killing of young male babies) to be of little help in
drawing conclusions about the social status of women?
F. Percentages of infanticide victims who were male
gives us no information about the percentage who were
G. This information gives us little idea of how adultage
women were treated in society, which is the
primary objective of the researcher
H. A 90% trend is clearly just as statistically
insignificant as a 65% trend, according to the passage
J. Much like all of Cohn's historical research, this
information is based on his irrationality
19. Based on information in the passage, what type of
historical source would someone writing a
microhistory most prefer?
A. A small painting of a Noble
B. A collection of correspondence
C. A statistical summary of deaths from the Plague
D. A summary of legal theories in the Renaissance
20. What is the main idea of the last paragraph (lines
F. That statistical and case-study approaches should be
comprehensively synthesized to make for the best
possible historical analyses
G. That both statistics and case-study approaches are
fundamentally flawed, and a better understanding of
social context should be attained
H. That while Cohn's approach has its merits, the case study approach with its more balanced analysis is a more rigorous option
J. Historians will be unable to improve upon the
works of Cohn and his contemporaries due to the lack
of reliable historical information
21. What likely assumption on the part of his readers
is the author attempting to overcome in the passage as
A. That blues are not high quality music
B. That the blues are as American as apple pie
C. That Blues are purely American in origin
D. That the blues are a key part of American popular culture
22. In line 74, the word "fixed" most nearly means:
23. Which of the following situations is most similar
to the relationship between the "Akotings" mentioned
in line 49 and a banjo?
A. The American-invented telephone that was later
adapted to the cellular phone thanks to later American
B. The German-invented Frankfurter that was later
adapted to the Hot Dog by American culture thanks to
C. The German invention of calculus that was
simultaneously invented by English mathematicians
D. The Japanese manufacture of electronic devices
that were adapted from American inventions in the
post-World War II environment
24. According to the passage, the culture of which of
these geographical regions made the most significant
contributions to the creation of blues music?
H. Mississippi Delta
J. West Africa
25. What is the author's purpose in mentioning Dr.
Reebee Garofalo in line 62?
A. To provide the backing of an authority to justify
his argument in the fourth paragraph
B. To appeal to a scholar who has clearly stated
how he agrees with the thesis of the passage as a whole
C. To give the testimony of a person who has had to
perform African work songs as a laborer
D. To show how a modern-day musician continues
to be influenced by West-African cultural
26. We can infer from the passage that which of the
following would NOT need to be relatively consistent
across songs characterized as blues?
F. Lyrical Structure
G. Musical scales used
H. Combination of dissonance in the tonality.
J. Musical instruments utilized
27. Which of the following would most likely be an
example of "music for the sake of music" at the term is
used in line 63?
A. A national anthem
B. A school fight song
C. A modern symphony
D. A love song duet
28. According to the second paragraph (lines 21-33),
what is the major difference between jazz and the
F. The longevity they have had in America
G. The consistency of their styles over time
H. Whether they had any foreign influence
J. Their popularity in modern-day society
29. The term "iambic pentameter" in lines 77-78 is
used by the author to illustrate:
A. The structure of blues music across history
B. The incubation of blues music in West Africa
C. The impact of Western culture on the blues
D. An example of an amorphous work song
30. Which the following best describes the tone of the
passage as a whole?
F. Reasoned persuasion
G. Impassioned argument
H. Scholarly detachment
J. Impersonal indifference
31. What is the purpose of the passage?
A. Explain a phenomenon
B. Analyze an approach
C. Discuss an argument
D. Investigate a theory
32. What is the function of the quotation marks around
the words "fireflies" and "lightning bugs" in lines 6-7?
F. To describe the light sources, such as fire and light,
that bioluminescent creatures utilize
G. To provide a quotation from a biologist about
H. To analyze the origins of the phenomenon of
J. To illustrate the common names of bioluminescent
insects to the reader
33. According to the passage, which of the following
represents (an) environment(s) in which
bioluminescent creatures have been located?
A. Water only
B. Air only
C. Water and air only
D. Land , sea and air
34. We can infer from the passage that the author
believes that bioluminescence evolved:
F. As a result of a common ancestor
G. Independently due to environmental needs
H. Similarly due to requirements to combat nighttime
J. For the purposes of mating
35. According to the third paragraph (lines 31-42),
what is different in the outcomes of the processes of
bioluminescence vs. incandescence?
A. 20% more energy is utilized
B. The use of thermal radiation
C. Whether light is created
D. Amount of heat wasted
36. We can infer from the passage that a situation in
which human utilization of bioluminescent technology
would be most useful would most likely be which of
F. To minimize oxygen use and minimize heat
G. To maximize oxygen use and minimize heat
H. To minimize oxygen use and maximize heat
J. To maximize oxygen use and maximize heat
37. According to the fourth paragraph (lines 43-66),
the shift in levels of which of the following substances
is most responsible for the chemical reaction that
A. Nitric Oxide Gas
38. Based on the information in the passage, which of
the following is NOT a biological purpose of
G. Catching food
39. Based on the information in the fourth paragraph
(lines 43-66), the process by which nitric oxide goes
through molecular decay is most important to the
firefly mating process due to which of the following
A. Its speed
B. Its frequency
C. Its luminescence
D. Its energy
40. What may we infer is a reason the author states
that "the firefly is perhaps the most familiar species
that emits its own light" in lines 8-9?
F. Its relatively large size
G. The ease with which it is observed
H. The number of species categorized as such
J. Its unique manifestation of glowing light
1. The main theme of this passage concerns the:
A. difficulty of first starting and then maintaining a
B. process of making a new friend and how the
friendship changes the narrator.
C. problems the narrator has dealing with the loss of
her former neighbors.
D. differences in the lives led by two pairs of adults
who at different times lived in the same house.
2. Which of the following questions is NOT answered by
information in the passage?
F. Has the narrator ever walked around inside
G. What hobby or interest do Eugene and the narrator
H. What makes Eugene's house different from other
houses on the block?
J. What careers other than teaching has the narrator
3. The narrator draws which of the following comparisons
between the old couple and Eugene's parents?
A. The old couple were more socially outgoing and
had many more friends than Eugene's parents.
B. Eugene's parents are just as interested in tending
the lawn and flowers as the old couple were.
C. Eugene's parents are less nurturing of each other
and spend less time together than the old couple did.
D. Just like the old man and old woman, both of
Eugene's parents appear to have jobs outside the
4. In terms of developing the narrative, the last two paragraphs
(lines 67-87) primarily serve to:
F. provide background details about the narrator and
her family in order to highlight the narrator's
unique and shifting perspective.
G. describe the narrator's family in order to establish a
contrast between her parents and Eugene's parents.
H. portray the narrator's family in order to show how
her friendship with Eugene affected the various
members of her family.
J. depict the hopes and dreams of the narrator's parents
in order to show how her parents' aspirations
changed over time.
5. It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage
that when the narrator says, "I didn't see the red,
yellow, and purple clusters that meant flowers to me"
(lines 30-31), she is most nearly indicating that:
A. from her current position, she couldn't see the old
woman's flowers, which were still growing near
B. the flowers grown by the old woman had died
because the narrator had stopped watering them.
C. the flowers grown by the old woman had been cut
down when Eugene's father mowed the lawn.
D. the weeds that had grown up in the old couple's
lawn had intertwined with the flowers, making the
flowers hard to see.
6. According to the narrator, which of the following
statements was true about Eugene at the moment when
she first talked to him?
F. Due to the size of the school, he had not even
noticed the narrator until she started talking to him.
G. He had searched unsuccessfully for the narrator's
locker several different times and had been too shy
to ask someone where it was.
H. He had first noticed the narrator in study hall but
had been uninterested in her until she introduced
J. He had apparently taken notice of the narrator at
school and had come to like her but felt nervous
about introducing himself.
7. When the narrator says, "I began to think of the present
more than of the future" (lines 80-81), she most
likely means that meeting Eugene led her to:
A. shift some of her attention away from her career
plans and onto the developing friendship.
B. think more about her own work interests than
about the career her parents thought she should
C. put off her plans of returning to Puerto Rico for a
visit in favor of continuing to prepare for college.
D. want to spend more time with him instead of helping
her parents plan a vacation to Puerto Rico.
8. The narrator most nearly portrays her parents' dreams
F. close to being realized because of her father's
G. somewhat uncommon among the other residents of
the family's building.
H. ones she has heard about many times but that seem
far off and remote to her.
J. ones she shares with her parents and longs to fulfill.
9. The narrator claims that she felt close to the old couple
because she had:
A. listened in on so many of their conversations over
B. helped take care of the old woman's flowers after
the woman's husband had died.
C. been able to watch them as they moved through
their entire house.
D. regularly observed them during their mealtimes.
10. Which of the following best describes the narrator's
feelings about secretly observing Eugene at his home?
F. Joy tinged with suspicion
G. Enjoyment mixed with guilt
H. Happiness overwhelmed by a sense of betrayal
J. Pleasure lessened by having actually met him
11. As she is revealed in the passage, ER is best described
A. socially controversial but quietly cooperative.
B. politically courageous and socially concerned.
C. morally strong and deeply traditional.
D. personally driven but calmly moderate.
12. The author presents ER's accomplishments as exceptional
F. brought politically unpopular views to the forefront
of the nation's politics.
G. was the first public figure to introduce political
roles for women.
H. was a political pioneer struggling alone for social
J. replaced community action with more powerful
White House networks
13. According to the passage, ER believed that social
reform should include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. promoting community action.
B. developing universal education.
C. supporting affordable housing.
D. establishing involved theories
14. Based on the passage, ER's approach to social reform
can best be characterized as:
F. passionate and theoretical.
G. patient and flexible.
H. simplistic and isolationist.
J. progressive and determined.
15. It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that at
the time ER began working for social reform, the
United States was:
A. deeply committed to reforms in education and
B. experiencing a time of national prosperity that
contributed to ER's ideals concerning the public
C. concentrating on affairs at home due to isolationist
policies and the spread of democracy overseas.
D. unsupportive of the idea that the government was
responsible for the welfare of its poor and neglected.
16. According to the last paragraph, which of the following
statements would the author most likely make
with regard to ER's vision and ideals?
F. ER considered politics a game and played only
when she knew she could win.
G. ER worked with agitators and remained dedicated
to the pursuit of justice and peace in victory and
H. ER placed herself in the position of president,
making decisions that determined White House
J. ER saw herself as the country's role model and
personally responsible for bringing about change.
17. In terms of the passage as a whole, one of the main
functions of the third paragraph (lines 13-19) is to
A. ER's successes in various professional pursuits
helped prepare her to take action in the political
B. ER had avoided the political spotlight in her personal
C. ER had competing and conflicting interests during
her first year as first lady.
D. while ER had many personal accomplishments,
little could have prepared her for life as the first
18. According to the passage, the primary principle underlying
ER's goals was that:
F. every person deserved a dignified and decent life.
G. as first lady, she could talk about things that had
never been discussed before.
H. through radio and columns, she could show she
was interested in every person.
J. she must lead a bloodless American revolution.
19. The passage states that ER believed the relationship
between a people and their government should be:
A. begun and carried out as if it were an isolated,
B. formed and modeled by the White House.
C. based on organized, widespread citizen participation.
D. controlled through radio broadcasts and formal
20. In the context of the passage, the author's statement
that ER "enjoyed the game, and weathered the abuse"
(line 93) most nearly means that ER:
F. enjoyed her individualist adventure in politics
even if criticized.
G. preferred to be a team player rather than take the
H. embraced the political life and accepted criticism
as part of her work.
J. understood political games and so did not take politics
or criticism very seriously.
21. Which of the following statements best describes the
structure of this passage?
A. It begins and ends with a series of assertions that
surround a story used by the narrator to support
and elaborate on those assertions.
B. It contains a highly detailed anecdote that the narrator
uses to show how the claims she makes in the
first paragraph are wrong.
C. It compares and contrasts the narrator's perspective
on an incident in her life with the perspectives
of several other people, such as her parents.
D. It consists mainly of a story about a recent event in
the narrator's life that she feels taught her an interesting
but ultimately insignificant lesson.
22. In terms of mood, which of the following best
describes lines 9-44?
F. A steadily increasing feeling of tension
G. A consistently high level of tension
H. A growing feeling of tension that is finally broken
J. A feeling of tension frequently undermined by the
narrator's use of irony and humor
23. The narrator develops the third paragraph (lines 19-29)
A. detached philosophical musings on the nature of
the object she sees.
B. a detailed description of what she did to try to
keep the object out of her room.
C. sensory details vividly depicting the object and its
D. imaginative speculation on what might be causing
the object to appear.
24. The narrator indicates that one reason she did not wake
her sister Amy when "something" came into their room
F. Amy had previously asked the narrator to stop
waking her up during the night.
G. the narrator knew she could muster her own
H. Amy had already figured out what the thing was
before going to sleep.
J. the narrator was afraid of alerting the thing to her
25. It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that the
narrator regards her initial discovery of the truth about
the object entering her bedroom as:
A. deflating, because the object turned out to be so
B. disappointing, because she felt she should have
solved the mystery many years ago.
C. satisfying, because she could at last ignore the
object and go to sleep.
D. significant, because solving the mystery led to
26. It can most reasonably be inferred that for the narrator,
the image of the diver bursting through "the ocean's
sparkling membrane" (line 52) symbolizes her:
F. fear of monsters and of the object in her bedroom.
G. crossing of the boundary separating her inner and
H. struggle to maintain the separation between her
inner and outer worlds.
J. bitterness at entering reality and leaving behind
her comforting memories.
27. As it is used in line 87, the phrase "a show in light"
most nearly refers to:
A. a fictional story the narrator has read.
B. a movie the narrator saw at a theater.
C. the work of reason in linking a person to the outer
D. a fantasy created by the mind.
28. The narrator uses the images in lines 3-5 primarily to
depict the interior life's tendency to engage in:
F. deceptive self-absorption.
G. vital self-examination.
H. useful analysis of nature.
J. fierce debates with itself
29. Which of the following statements best paraphrases
A. The imagination lacks value and should be ignored
in favor of paying attention to the actual world.
B. Reason can enhance the imagination but at the
expense of experience in the actual world.
C. Rather than become isolated, the imagination
should connect to the actual world at least occasionally.
D. Reason, not the imagination, is the best way to
appreciate and enrich the actual world.
30. By her statements in lines 77-80, the narrator is most
nearly asserting that:
F. in her world, adults are generally considered more
important than children.
G. she, like everyone and everything else, was a small
part of a larger world.
H. it still mattered greatly whether people saw or
J. she was less valuable than other people in her
31. Which of the following conclusions about new theories
in science can reasonably be drawn from the passage?
A. Important new theories will eventually be accepted,
no matter how controversial they are or who proposes
B. Important but unusual new theories have a better
chance at acceptance when they are proposed by
C. Research on new, nontraditional theories is widely
respected within the scientific community.
D. Scientists welcome the opportunity to overturn
existing ideas in favor of useful new theories.
32. Which of the following best describes how Frank's
colleagues perceived him after he first presented the
F. Their doubts about the theory led them to also
question his work on particles in space.
G. They felt his theory had ruined his reputation as a
widely respected scientist.
H. He acquired a reputation among them as someone
who had worked hard to develop his theory.
J. They still respected his traditional research but felt
he was overly committed to an improbable theory.
33. The passage indicates that at the time Frank and
Sigwarth presented new evidence supporting the smallcomet
theory, Frank most nearly felt:
A. relieved but bitter about how he had been treated.
B. grateful that ridicule of his work would end.
C. proud that he had been proved right.
D. satisfied and filled with anticipation of glory.
34. The author uses the fourth paragraph (lines 27-33) primarily
F. continue his earlier criticisms of scientists.
G. reveal the role science serves in society.
H. present then undermine common perceptions of
J. explain the difference between theoretical and
practical scientific research.
35. According to the passage, the research that led to the
development of the small-comet theory began with a
project originally intended to study:
A. the electrical activity accompanying sunspots.
B. water entering Earth's upper atmosphere.
C. static in satellite transmissions.
D. specks in satellite images.
36. The main function of lines 64-66 in terms of the
eighth paragraph (lines 59-66) as a whole is to:
F. give a sense of proportion to the numbers provided
earlier in the paragraph.
G. point out the limitations of the evidence provided
by the Iowa scientists.
H. supplement the paragraph's description of the
comets with additional details about their size and
J. provide readers with a sense of how old the planet
37. It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that
within the scientific community the year the passage
was published, the small-comet theory was:
A. tremendously unpopular and condemned for its
B. widely accepted and seen as conclusive.
C. regarded as tentative but deemed worthy of consideration.
D. seen as correct by most scientists but was highly
criticized by some.
38. The author italicizes the word something in line 18
most likely to emphasize the:
F. great skepticism with which critics regard Frank
and Sigwarth's new evidence.
G. remaining uncertainty about what exactly is bombarding
H. lack of doubt among scientists about the smallcomet
theory's practical value.
J. concern among scientists about the usefulness of
Frank and Sigwarth's methods of collecting evidence.
39. When Richard Zare says that scientists lead a "constant
schizophrenic existence" (lines 34-35), he most
nearly means that they:
A. often suffer psychologically from the demands of
B. tend to be either complete cynics or people who
believe too much.
C. are often guilty of either doing nothing or of fooling
D. have to maintain a balance between accepting and
40. It can reasonably be inferred that Frank and Sigwarth
conducted the study of the dark specks they found with
F. detached, scientific mindset.
G. casual interest that developed into a mild curiosity.
H. steadily increasing level of involvement.
J. great intensity that began when they discovered
1. The passage is written from the point of view of:
A. an unidentified narrator observing the relationship
over time between a boy and his grandfather.
B. two members of the same family discovering their
shared trait through joint activities.
C. a grown man agonizing over the mixed messages
he received as a child from older relatives.
D. a boy and the man he becomes considering incidents
that illustrate a family trait.
2. Which of the following best describes the author's
approach to presenting the story of the narrator's discovery
F. Revealing the narrator's self-awareness about a
trait through a blend of personal reflection and
scenes from the narrator's youth and adulthood
G. Starting immediately with a statement of the discovery
in the narrator's voice and continuing with
scenes that reveal how the discovery came about
H. Describing the physical details of scenes and summarizing
their significance in a concluding statement
in the narrator's voice
J. Using dialogue in the midst of scenes fraught with
tension to indicate what the narrator is experiencing
3. Each of the three projects described in the passage
A. the increasing antagonism between the grandfather
B. the errors the narrator makes and the disapproval
they bring from others.
C. that such incidents set the stage for the Bryant
family traits to emerge.
D. that the narrator is determined to avoid being
ungrateful, hateful, or overly fastidious.
4. The boy's approach to the task of converting the tennis
court to a basketball court can best be described as:
F. reluctant until his grandfather's plans inspire him.
G. enthusiastic until his grandfather's error puts them
both in an awkward position.
H. apprehensive until he discovers his error is not a
J. thrilled until he remembers that his grandfather is
a poor planner.
5. As he is revealed in the incident of undertaking the
construction of the basketball court, the grandfather
can best be characterized as:
A. confidently optimistic, then childishly defensive.
B. charmingly patient, then increasingly accusatory.
C. consistently encouraging in spite of setbacks.
D. vocally defensive, then quietly apologetic.
6. The question "Did you know that Bryant built his
shelves so they tilt?" (lines 65-66) helps establish that
the narrator is anxious because:
F. his coworkers have discovered his incompetence
and have made it the subject of office humor.
G. his coworkers resent his having a corner office and
punish him with their biting humor.
H. he fears his incompetence is so glaring it will
make him the object of ridicule among coworkers.
J. the tilting bookshelves remind him that, like his
grandfather, he cannot hide his mistakes.
7. Information in the second paragraph (lines 4-12)
reveals that the family's response to the grandfather's
error with the crutches is to:
A. find a workable remedy for it.
B. lay the blame on the narrator.
C. praise him for more successful projects.
D. fix what wasn't wrong in the first place.
8. It can most reasonably be inferred from the sixth paragraph
(lines 36-46) that the statement that the basketball
hoops "can't be made smaller" (line 40) is:
F. a fact stated by the grandfather apologetically.
G. an opinion stated by the grandfather indignantly.
H. a claim the narrator makes to humiliate a relative.
J. a conclusion the narrator reaches after hard labor
9. It can most reasonably be inferred that the narrator's
discovery that an error has been made in constructing
the bookshelves is for him a source of:
A. embarrassment in the face of coworkers who anticipated
B. comfort because it reveals a trait that he shares
with his family.
C. frustration because it will require a remedy that
will be tedious to carry out.
D. relief because it gives him an excuse to seek the
assistance of coworkers in finishing the project.
10. In the last paragraph, a comparison is made between
"diminished excellence" and "flawed competence."
From the narrator's point of view, the conditions are
different because the one is:
F. a source of sorrow while the other is a source of
G. based in the family while the other is based in the
H. inherent in the environment while the other is
inherent in the individual.
J. a sign that the individual can improve the world
while the other is a sign that the individual can't.
11. The function of the first paragraph in relation to the
passage as a whole is to:
A. orient the reader to the subject of longitude by
explaining how longitude is determined at sea.
B. explain the political significance of developing an
accurate way of determining longitude.
C. establish that longitude calculations are necessary
to determine time in two different places at once.
D. introduce a discussion of how knowledge of Earth's
position relative to the Sun was gained in the
process of advances in timekeeping.
12. Which of the following best describes the way the fifth
paragraph (lines 48-54) functions in the passage as a
F. It puts into historical perspective the difficulty of
solving the longitude problem and introduces the
subject of Britain's longitude prize.
G. It translates the technical terminology used elsewhere
in the passage into language that is more
H. It sheds light on why it took longer for a solution
to the longitude problem to emerge in Europe than
in other parts of the world.
J. It diminishes the importance of the lives that were
lost in the efforts to solve the longitude problem.
13. It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that
before Harrison's efforts, other individuals trying to
solve the longitude problem had failed to:
A. consider clocks as the potential instrument of calculation.
B. agree on why longitude decreases in value at
increasing distances from Earth's equator.
C. improve upon the features of clocks that made
them unreliable at sea.
D. understand the ways that charts and compasses
could be used in connection with timepieces to
14. The reference to the catastrophe at Scilly (lines 45-47)
is used to illustrate the point made in the passage that:
F. charts and compasses were poorly made in the
G. England more than other countries stood to gain
from a solution to the problem of determining longitude.
H. captains were contributing to the problem of lost
lives by resisting a solution to the problem of
J. Harrison's accomplishments addressed shortcomings
of navigation whose consequences were vast
15. Information in the second paragraph (lines 17-25)
establishes that one degree of longitude translates into
a distance of:
A. sixty-eight miles at Earth's equator but less on
either side of Earth's equator.
B. sixty-eight miles at Earth's equator but more on
either side of Earth's equator.
C. one thousand miles the world over.
D. virtually nothing at Earth's equator, increasing to a
maximum of sixty-eight miles at the poles.
16. Which of the following statements best describes the
metals used in Harrison's clock?
F. The metals were identical so that they would
respond consistently to changes in conditions at
G. The metals were different so that their changes in
response to conditions at sea would counteract
H. The metals that remained stable in response to
temperature changes were encased in metals that
were impervious to rust.
J. The metals expanded and contracted in ways that
were counteracted by changes in the parts made of
17. The passage suggests that Harrison's principal competitors
in the race to develop a means of determining
A. the great captains in the Age of Exploration.
B. members of the British Parliament.
C. trained clockmakers with formal educations.
D. individuals in the scientific community.
18. According to the passage, there was a delay between
the time when Harrison arrived at a solution to the
problem of longitude and when he received his reward
F. invention predated the Longitude Act of 1714.
G. clock was only one of many successful solutions
to emerge simultaneously.
H. opponents obstructed his efforts to claim the prize
J. supporters abandoned him in order to exploit his
invention for their own financial gain
19. Lines 82-84 indicate that others took over Harrison's
work in order to:
A. secure a wider range of applications for an instrument
that had been used only at sea.
B. take credit for his remarkable accomplishments.
C. diminish the significance of his clock by having it
D. turn his design into one that could be practically
produced for more users.
20. The passage indicates that instruments for determining
longitude now include:
F. modified pendulum clocks.
H. a network of ships.
21. As it is described in the passage, sewing seems most
closely associated in the narrator's mind with her
A. low wages.
22. It is reasonable to infer from the passage that the narrator
looks back on the dinner-dances as a time when:
F. her parents were in conflict over her mother's
G. the entire family was filled with excitement and
H. she and her father had a much easier relationship
with each other.
J. her mother and father had renewed hope for the
future of the family.
23. It is reasonable to infer that the primary reason the
author included the information in the eleventh paragraph
(lines 59-64) is to:
A. contrast it with the earlier description of the family
looking at shop displays on a snowy evening.
B. support the information about the trip to the fabric
store, which is presented earlier.
C. compare it with the scene where the father dances
with his wife and daughters.
D. contrast it with the scene presented in the last two
paragraphs (lines 78-92).
24. The primary focus of lines 65-92 is:
F. the relationship between the narrator and her
G. Okaa-chan's strength and integrity.
H. Albany's move toward the twenty-first century.
J. the narrator's father's stubbornness.
25. When the narrator says, "I solemnly would nod—the
honored recipient of this arcane cultural wisdom"
(lines 53-54), she most likely means that:
A. she felt intimidated when her father was giving her
information that she did not understand.
B. her father was honored to be able to share personal
information with his daughter.
C. when her father put on his tie, she pretended to be
honored, even though she thought his comment
D. the information her father was giving her seemed
important and made her feel valued.
26. The sentence "Like an eagle, her words slipped regally
down a great distance and struck with awful ease"
(lines 75-76) indicates that the narrator:
F. was not sure what her mother expected of her.
G. recognized that her mother was being demeaned.
H. wanted to distance herself from her mother.
J. was ill at ease with her position in the family.
27. Information in the passage suggests that the narrator's
father disapproves of Okaa-chan's sewing business
primarily because it:
A. diminishes his role as a provider.
B. means more to her than he does.
C. does not generate enough income.
D. threatens his sense of dignity.
28. Based on the last two paragraphs (lines 78-92), which
of the following statements indicates what the narrator's
father and mother have in common?
F. They both want control of the family finances.
G. They are both fighting for their self-respect.
H. They both want to teach a lesson to their children.
J. They are both angry at the woman who came for
29. The author uses the term "architectural wonders"
(line 12) to describe:
A. nineteenth-century buildings.
B. German baked goods.
C. crowded city blocks with cobblestone streets.
D. arranged layers of fruits, vegetables, and sausages.
30. Which of the following words best describes the narrator's
father's dancing as he practices for the dinnerdance
31. The quotation by L. S. Vygotsky in lines 32-41 is used
in this passage to support the idea that:
A. children with handicaps should be studied in the
same way as children defined by physicians as
B. deficits need to demonstrate intactness in order to
be judged acceptable.
C. neural or sensory mishap occurs in children as
well as in adults.
D. development of children with handicaps may proceed
in positive yet quite distinctive ways.
32. The author of the passage refers to the work of A. R.
Luria and L. S. Vygotsky primarily to underscore the
idea that people who have:
F. disabilities or developmental disorders learn to
create new selves.
G. disabilities or developmental disorders need special
H. unusual handicaps are qualitatively different.
J. neural mishaps have minutely differentiated brains
33. Lines 42-53 suggest that, prior to A. R. Luria's research,
medical researchers had thought of the brain as:
34. As it is used in line 41, the word compensation most
35. The author's main purpose in lines 54-69 is to show:
A. how he has come to think differently about the
B. why sickness often causes a contraction of life.
C. when he had made new discoveries about the
D. which of his subjects helped him redefine the term
36. The author of the passage makes it clear that, when it
comes to understanding the effects of a disease on an
individual patient, it is necessary for medical doctors
F. adhere to established norms of human behavior in
diagnosing and treating disease.
G. quickly establish a method of treatment that will
save the patient from further suffering.
H. examine the ways that people learn to live with a
disease in their daily lives.
J. know each person's brain is minutely differentiated
and responsible for the disease being studied.
37. The last paragraph suggests that the author's main
reason for leaving the hospital to visit his patients is to
allow him to:
A. feel more like a patient than a physician.
B. become a more important part of the real world.
C. understand his patients' illnesses better.
D. see if being a naturalist is like being a physician.
38. The paradox mentioned in the second paragraph
(lines 9-14) is best described by which of the following
F. The course of human evolution is guided by the
creative potential of the static brain.
G. Serious illness can lead directly to previously
unthought of yet productive developmental change.
H. Sickness may contract life, but in so doing it can
maintain the physical "norm" at a similar level.
J. The long-term study of disorders and diseases
brings out the creative skills of researchers.
39. As it is used in line 15, the word ravages most nearly
A. paradoxical features.
B. creative adaptations.
C. fatal nature.
D. destructive actions.
40. The word miracle in line 52 refers most specifically to
the ways in which:
F. brain function disorders are cured.
G. unique handicaps are compensated for.
H. different areas of the brain work together.
J. the creative potential of disease is revealed.
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