Terms in this set (171)
What are the 7 strong acids?
What are the 7 strong bases?
Sodium Hydroixe (NaOH)
Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)
Amide ion (NH2-)
Hydride ion (H-)
Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
Sodium Oxide- (Na2O)
Calcium Oxide (CaO)
GROUP 1 Hydroxides
What are the Lewis definitions of Acid and Base?
What are the Bronsted-Lowry definitions of Acid/Base?
What are the Arrehenius definitions of Acid/Base?
How is bond strength related to acidity?
How is polarity related to acidity?
How is conjugate stability related to acidity?
What is the Henderson Hasselbach equation?
What is a sufonyl group made of?
What is a Urea group made of?
What is the pH of a 0.1M HCl solution?
What is pH+pOH?
What is the equation for work?
theta=angle between force and movement
What is the wavelength range for visible light?
(ROYGBIV) About 7x10^-7m to 4x10^-7m
What is microwaves wavelength?
What is X-rays wavelength?
How can Power be calculated, given mass, velocity and time?
(Change in KE)/(time)
What effect does a competitive inhibitor have on a reaction's Km and Vmax?
Km will increase
Vmax will be unchanged at high substrate concentrations
What effect does a noncompetitive inhibitor have on a reaction's Km and Vmax?
Vmax is lowered
Km is unchanged
How is the work done by a fluid system calculated?
W=(change in volume)(Pressure)--In a closed system with constant pressure
How does a decrease in a sound wave's frequency affect the pitch of the sound?
It gets lower, deeper
Which amino acids have polar but uncharged side chains?
Draw Arginine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Histidine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Lysine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Aspartic Acid. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Glutamic Acid. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Serine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Threonine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Asparagine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Glutamine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Cysteine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Glycine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Proline. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Alanine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Isoleucine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Leucine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Methionine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Phenylalanine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Tryptophan. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Tyrosine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
Draw Valine. Symbols? (3 and 1)
What are the positively charged amino acids? Are they basic or acidic?
Arginine, Histidine, Lysine--Basic. Tend to bind protons in neutral solution, giving positive. (His lies are basic)
What are the negatively charged amino acids?
Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid
What are the amino acids with hydrophobic side chains? (8)
What type of site is a carbonyl carbon (electrophilic or nucleophilic)?
What is the relative reactivity between Amides, Acyl Halides, Esters/Acids and Anhydride?
What is the structure of an acyl halide?
Where X is a halide (Cl, Br, etc..)
What is the structure of an amide?
What is the structure of an ester?
What is the structure of an anhydride?
What is a thioether?
Sulfur atom single bonded to two carbons (C-S-C)
What is an Imine?
Carbon double bonded to a nitrogen
What is a fatty acid chain?
Long alkyl group that terminates in carboxylic acid group
What happens to atomic mass and atomic number in B- decay?
Atomic mass stays constant
Atomic number goes up by 1
What happens to atomic mass and and atomic number in Alpha decay?
Alpha particle (He nucleus) emitted
Mass number is 4 less
Atomic number is 2 less
What is the formula for sound velocity?
For more than one step equations, how is the Gibb's free energy change calculated?
Summation of both steps G
What is transfection?
Introducing nucleic acids into cells
What is monocytes function?
In conjunction with epithelia factors, facilitate host immune response.
Cascade causes accumulation of immune cells at injury site
What kind of charge does arginine have at physiologic pH?
What is SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) used for?
To separate proteins by size
What is the difference between an antibody and an antigen?
Antibody-Recognize and bind to specific
Which of the following is NOT a function of the sympathetic nervous system?
Increased heart rate
Pupillary constriction (Vasodilation occurs in skeletal muscle, vasoconstriction in viscera, slowing digestion)
What is the bicarb buffer system equation of blood?
H+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq) ↔ H2CO3 (aq) ↔ H2O (l) + CO2(g)
What respiration event can cause an increase in blood pH? Why?
Increased respiratory rate. This causes CO2 to be lost. As products are lost, equilibrium shifts to the right (of bicarb buffer system equation), meaning less H+ in blood
What effect does a decreased tidal volume have on blood pH?
pH drops due to decreased CO2 exhalation
What are the lipid soluble vitamins?
A, D, E, K
What are the water soluble vitamins?
What does an azide refer to?
What type of control is the gall bladder under?
What type of control is the skeletal muscle under?
Where is the duodenum?
Skeletal muscle: Voluntary or involuntary?
Striated or non?
Single or multinucleated?
Cardiac muscle: Voluntary or involuntary?
Striated or non?
Single or multinucleated?
Smooth muscle: Voluntary or involuntary?
Striated or non?
Single or multinucleated?
Immunoglobulins, MHC I and Phagocytes are all part of what type of immunity?
What is cell-mediated immunity?
response carried out by T cells, protects the body from virus infection and cancer, killing abnormal or virus infected body cells
What is a mediating variable?
something that explains the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variable.
What is instrumental support?
refers to the various types of tangible help that others may provide to an individual (e.g. help with childcare/housekeeping, provision of transportation or money)
What is companionship support?
the type of support that gives someone a sense of social belonging. This can be seen as the presence of companions to engage in shared social activities.
What is emotional support?
things that people do that make us feel loved and cared for, and that bolster our sense of self-worth
What is informational support?
a third type of social support (one that is sometimes included within the instrumental support category) and refers to the help that others may offer through the provision of information.
What is homophily?
Tendency of individuals to associate and bond with others similar to themselves
What are the three monoamines that play a role in mood?
NE, serotonin and dopamine
What does Mazlow's hierarchy outline?
how people prioritize basic physiological needs (food, clothing, shelter) over other needs in life such as safety or love
What do the Piaget stages outline?
stages of cognitive development that applies to children and adolescents
What do the Kohlberg stages outline?
moral reasoning addressing how people reason their way through moral questions, and showed how this reasoning develops from children to adults
What is depersonalization?
symptom of serious mental illness (although it can happen to anyone, repeated instances are suggestive of a dissociative disorder) in which a person feels like she has stepped outside of herself and is watching herself act, with no sense of control over her behavior
What is a formal sanction?
A rule enforced by government, like fine or prison
What does the Canon-Bard theory state?
emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion (heart rate and fear happen at same time)
What is the serial position effect?
The short-term memory is more likely to remember stuff that's at the beginning and end of a list
What is symbolic interactionism?
a view of sociology on the micro level - through interactions between individual people. It analyzes how, as members of society, those individuals use and understand the symbols of the society they live in
What is functionalism?
views society and social institutions as interdependent, interacting parts of a whole
What is anterograde memory?
Recollection of events and experiences after given timepoint or sudden disturbance
What is retrograde memory?
Memory of early life events
What is Broca's area responsible for? Where is it?
speech production, facial neuron control and language processing. Cerebral cortex
What is the reticular formation in the brainstem responsible for?
a set of connected nuclei in the brainstem that is responsible for regulating arousal and sleep-wake transitions
What is the primary motor cortex responsible for?
operates in conjunction with the pre-motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, posterior parietal cortex to plan and execute movements
What is operationalization?
taking a phenomenon to be studied and creating a framework by which one can measure it, even though the phenomenon itself is not directly measurable
What is ethnocentrism?
Judging another culture by the value of one's own culture?
What is Wernicke's area responsible for?
the understanding of written and spoken language
What is conformity?
Adjusting one's behavior to coincide with group standard
What is groupthink?
case where the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making
What does the bystander effect refer to?
cases in which individuals do not offer any means of help to a victim when other people are present
What does Weber's law state?
That the just-noticeable difference between two stimuli is directly proportional to the percent difference between the stimuli
What is negative reinforcement?
Trying to increase a behavior by taking away something negative (Mouse pushed lever to stop loud alarm for a few minutes)
What are the three monoamines that play a role in mood?
NE, serotonin and
What is Dalton's law?
Total pressure exerted by gases is a sum of partial gas pressures
What do the numbers next to periodic symbol mean? (Top and bottom)
Top is atomic mass, represents Protons+neutrons
Bottom is atomic number represents # protons
What does cognitive dissonance theory state?
When something conflicts with own belief, something has to change to remove discomfort (dissonance)
What is a reference group?
Social group that person takes as standard when forming attitudes and behaviors
What is reinforcement vs punishment?
Reinforcement used to increase probability of behavior being repeated (either giving something good or taking something bad away)
Punishment is something that decreases probability of repeat (Giving something bad or taking away something good)
How is power at a constant speed related to the applied force?
Which column house the alkaline earth metals?
What is the fundamental frequency of a vibrating string?
What is the formula for Torque?
What is the formula for average speed?
What type of agent is LiAlH4?
What type of agent of KMnO4?
In IR spec, where does the carbonyl stretching frequency fall?
In IR spec, where does O-H stretching frequency fall?
What is the sequence involved in carrying info from the CNS to the periphery and motor nuerons?
cortex → spinal cord → efferent neurons → interneurons → motor neurons → muscle tissue.
What type of radiation do Gamma Rays give off?
What is Transduction?
Transfer of DNA from one bacteria to another via a virus
What is the most common capsid shape among viruses?
What does Aldosterone do?
Increased Na Reabs in distal tubule
What does ADH do?
Increased H20 via aquaporins in collecting duct
What is a nonsense mutation?
Substitution that causes new, premature stop codon
What are the 3 RNA stop codons?
UGA, UAA, UAG
What are homologous structures, vs analogous structures?
-Analogous--evolved independently to carry out same function
-Homologous-Similar history, now have different functions
What are the stages of Cross's Nigrescence Model of African-American identity development?
Pre-encounter-View Caucasian as more desirable
Immersion-emmersion-View majority of Caucasian race with resentment
Internalization-integrated aspects of his own culture with that of the majority culture and is working to rectify past racial injustices
A drive-reduction and cognitive theorist would argue that depression is most strongly correlated with a deficiency in what?
What portion of the brain is involved in humans' ability to project future consequences of current actions?
Which brain structures serve to regulate emotion and memory?
What is the Law of Closure?
Taking an incomplete figure, and perceiving it as a complete whole
What is the Law of Symmetry?
Tend to perceive stimuli as grouped symmetrically around a center point
What causes attrition bias?
People dropping out a long term study
What is reconstructive bias?
A bias due to faulty memory during recollection
What is distress?
Negative stress that builds over time, and is bad for the body. Happens when situation is perceived to be threatening (emotionally or physically )and body is primed to respond
What is eustress?
positive stress when situation is challenging, but motivating
What is nuestress?
Neutral stress--ie disaster on other side of world
How can positive/negative punishment/reinforcement be defined?
Negative-Taking something away
Punishment-To decrease behavior
Reinforcement-To reduce behavior
What are the 3 core components of emotion?
Physiological arousal--how your body reacts
Expressive displays--how you express emotions
Subjective experiences--How you feel and interpret your emotions
What are the three steps in the Schachter-Singer theory of emotion?
1.-Experience physiological arousal
2.-Cognitively interpret the situation
3.-Experience the emotion
What does the Stroop effect describe?
Phenomenon in which it is harder to reconcile different pieces of information relating to colors
What effect does an uncompetitive inhibitor have on a reactions Km and Vmax?
Km and Vmax both decreae
What does heterochromatin consist of?
Genes that are not currently being transcribed
What euchromatin consist of?
Chromatin which is actively being transcribed
How does splicing take place in eukaryotes?
A splieceosome, composed of snRNPs (made up of snRNAs) brings the ends of an intron together to form a loop (known as a lariat), excises the intro, and joins the ends together
What does gycolysis use and produce?
Monosaccharides and the glycerol backbone of triglycerides-->pyruvate
How are fatty acids broken down into acetyl-CoA?
What is catabolism?
Metabolic pathways that break things down to release energy-----(downward)
What is anabolism?
Reaction that works to store energy
What is the translational motion equation?
What is the equation for frictional force?
What is the equation for Work and Power?
P=change in work/change in time
Where is the OH IR peak?
Where is the NH2 IR peak?
Where is the Carbonyl IR peak?
What is the # of possible stereoisomers given the # of chiral carbons?
What happens in a lytic infection?
The virus takes over the cell's synthetic machinery to replicate viral components
What happens in a lysogenic infection?
viral DNA incorporated into host genome, gets reproduced with host DNA
What are Southern and Northern blots used for?
What is transformation?
Uptake of genetic info from the environment
What is conjugation?
Transfer of genetic material between bacteria via direct contact
What type of dependent variables is a Chi-Square analysis used for?
Categorical dependent variables
What types of statistical analysis allow for comparisons between different groups (independent variables)? Which is for two or more groups?
What is the function of the thalamus?
Way station for most stimulus, discluding olfactory information
What is the hypothalamus in charge of?
Maintaining homeostasis in physiological activities by coordinating between nervous and endocrine signals
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