33 terms

Ch. 1 A

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On any given day, there are _____ individuals with severe psychological disturbances who are inmates of jails and prisons.
135,000
Clinician's notes about a single client may be turned into a(n):
case study
Case studies, correlational methods, and experiments are:
the methods of investigation clinical researchers rely on.
Volunteers in the multinational anxiety trial were told that they would not know which treatment they would be receiving as this was a:
blind design.
_____ is the total number of cases of a disorder in the population during a given time period.
Prevalence
An experiment in which nature manipulates the independent variable instead of the researcher is called a:
natural experiment.
Malcolm began suffering from mood swings when he was a teenager. As he continued to age his moods became even more distinctive until he was recently diagnosed with bipolar disorder. He has difficulty holding a job and moves from one romantic relationship to the next. According to the textbook, what will MOST likely be the type of intervention taken by Malcolm?
He will become involved in an outpatient program.
_____ is the number of new cases of a disorder that emerge during a given time period.
Incidence
Which type of experimental design involves reproducing abnormal behavior in a laboratory setting in order to shed light on real-life psychological abnormality?
analogue experiment
Sunni was given a behavioral treatment to determine if there would be a reduction in his depressive symptoms. The reduction of his depressive symptoms is the _____ variable.
dependent
A correlation coefficient (r) of 1.00 expresses _____ between two variables.
a perfect positive correlation
Clinician's notes about a single client may be turned into a(n):
case study.
What is the name of the ethics committees in research facilities that watch over the rights and safety of human participants?
Institutional Review Board
A variable other than the independent variable that may be affecting the dependent variable in an experiment is called a:
confound
Deinstitutionalization occurred in part as a result of the:
development of psychotropic drugs
The type of bias which occurs when an individual in a study tries to please the researcher is called:
participant bias
What is the process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon called?
scientific method
A correlation coefficient (r) of _____ expresses a perfect positive correlation between two variables.
+1.00
_____ medications were developed in the 1950s to reduce symptoms of mental dysfunction.
Psychotropic
Studies done on the clarity and readability of informed consent forms have found that the forms are:
difficult for most people to read.
Freud wrote a detailed description of a young boy, Hans, who had a fear of horses. His description was developed from detailed letters sent to him by the boy's father and from notes taken from his own interviews with the child. Freud's description is considered:
case study
Which of the following correlations is the weakest?
+.24
Bongiwe has conducted correlational research on depression and caffeine intake and found that there is a negative correlation between the two variables. This means that as caffeine intake increases, depression decreases. The correlation coefficient (r) for her study is −.53. Keeping in mind that −1.00 would be a perfect negative correlation, what is the approximate strength of r for this study?
The correlation of −.53 is considered a strong negative correlation in psychological research.
Jackie was given 20mg of Drug X to determine if there would be a 25 percent reduction in her depressive symptoms. The dependent variable is:
a 25 percent reduction of her depressive symptoms.
One difference between an experimental design and a quasi-experimental design is that:
random assignment is not used in quasi-experiments.
In which research method is a single participant observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable?
single-subject experimental design
Medications that reduce tension and worry are called:
antianxiety drugs.
A study that finds a positive correlation demonstrates a relationship where increases in one variable are associated with_____ in another variable.
increases
Sanjay is studying the children of veterans who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder. He will follow the same group of children for a 10-year period to determine if there is a correlation between growing up in a household with a parent with PTSD and developing depression. This special type of correlational study is called a(n):
longitudinal study.
Which type of experiment makes use of control and experimental groups that already exist in the world at large?
quasi-experiment
To avoid bias, experimenters may prevent participants from finding out which group they are in. This strategy is called a:
blind design.
One way to implement a blind design is through the use of a:
placebo.
Jamall believes that depression is related to the number of negative life events a person experiences. He asked a group of newly diagnosed depressed patients to report how many negative life events they experienced in the previous year so that he could evaluate the relationship between the two variables. Jamall's prediction about how depression is related to life events is considered a:
hypothesis.