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Praxis: Ch. 11: EBP, Assessment & Txt.
Terms in this set (55)
A _________ is brief, and helps determine whether a client should undergo further, more detailed assessment.
-pass= witin normal limits
-not pass= warrants further assessment
A _______ ks a professional judgment made about the future course of a disorder or disease. It is a predictive statement.
-be CAREFUL when making prognosis statement
What factors influence the prognosis for a client?
-severity and type of disorder
-overall health of client
-any comorbidities or underlying conditions
-the time of intervention
-the quality, type, and consistency of txt
The term ____ means respect, trust, and a harmonious relationship between the clinician and family.
-explain what you're doing
-don't make the client feel rushed
-use appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication
What are the three times of teams that may assist the patient?
Mutidisciplinary- team members from multiple disciplines, each conducts own eval, write separate reports, little interaction w/ e/o.
Transdisciplinary Teams: mult specialists work tghr on the assessment, only ONE or TWO members provide services.
Interdisciplinary Team: team members from multiple disciplines interact and use e/o suggestions and info in interpreting data. Team collaboratively writes the eval report and inxn plan.
This type of assessment is systematic, has explicit direction and strict controls.
-unicorm across examiners
-yields quantitative information (#s)
-provides NORMS to compare to peers
What are some cons of using a Standardized Assessment?
-not all clients are represented adequately in the normative sample (culturally linguistic diverse clients)
-small sample sizes (should be at LEAST 100)
-don't explain WHY the clients answered the way they did
-doesn't account much for individual differences
-don' give specific guidelines for txt or eval planning
What score on a standardized assessment is the ACTUAL score earned on a test. This score can be converted to view on a distribution.
The RAW Score
-how many items the client answered correctly on the test
Distributions: the _____________ is the arithmetic average of the scores of the normative sample. The _______ ________ is the extent to which scores deviate from the average score.
MEAN- average scores of the sample
Standard Deviation- reflect variabilityof the scores of the normative sample.
-larger SD, more variable the scores
What is the typical SD on bell curve?
85-115 (100 is mean)= average
Aside from expressing scores by the mean, the _________ ________ shows the percentage of subjects who scored @ or below a specific raw score.
-use percentile points to express a client's score relative to the norm.
Ex: child scored in 25th percentile, then 75% of children did better on the test than the child did.
What percentile is equivalent to the mean and median?
the ____________ is the score in the exact middle of the distribution.
______ refers to the degree to which a measuring instrument measures what it purports tomeasure.
-does it measure what it claims to?
Ex: a receptive lang test actually tests receptive lang, and not IQ.
What are the different types of validity?
This type of validity refers to the degree to which a NEW test correlates with an established test of known validity.
-does it correlate with tests that are already around to measure that same thing?
*does it CONCUR with current tests?
too high= new test does concur with old, but the two tests are TOO similar. Raises the Q if there is actually a need for the new tests.
This type of validity refers to the degree to which test scores are consistent with theoretical constructs or concepts.
-includes qualitative and quantitative information that supports the test makers theory
*do the test scores prove that the test is constructed appropriately to measure what it claims to?
This type of validity is based on a thorough examination of all test items to determine if the items are relevant to measuring what the test claims to measure, and whether the items adequately sample the full range of the skill being measures.
-is the content appropriate in measuring what the test claims to measure?
This type of validity refers to the accuracy w/ which a test predicts future performance on a related task.
-this is a criterion-related validity b/c future performance is the criterion to evaluate the validity.
__________ means the consistency or stability with which the same event is repeatedly measured.
-scores are reliable is they are consistent across repeated testing or measurement of the same skill.
What factors influence the reliability of a test?
-Fluctuations in Examinee's Behavior: fatigue, attn., medications, environmental distractions
-Examiner Error: examiner might be tired or distracted, misuse a test by not administering it correctly.
-Instrumentation of Equipment Errors: equipment might not be calibrated or might malfunction.
Reliability is expressed as a correlational coefficient, or the index that indicates the relationship between two or more measures. Wha values are expected?
r= 1.00 *highest possible value
r= -1.00 *lowest ne value
r= 0.00, indicates there is NO relationship between the two values.
higher the r value, the greater the reliability of a test is
What are the different types of Reliability?
alternate Form Reliability
What is interjudge/interobserver reliability?
Refers to how similarly a subject's performance is independently rated/measured by TWO or more observers.
-observers independently score the same set of behaviors, then their scores are compared.
This type of reliability is the consistency with which the same observer measure the same phenomenon on repeated occasions.
-same clinician measures the same sample on two or more times to establish consistency in measuring the skill in question.
This type of reliability, AKA as PARALLEL FORM RELIABILITY, refers to the consistency of measures when two forms of the same test are administered to the same person.
ALTERNATE FORM RELIABILITY
-many tests have a form A and a form B, can use both forms with teh same child and should get similar scores.
This type of reliability refers to the consistency ofmeasures when the same test is administered to the same person twice.
-compare results of two tests for consistency
-suggests stability of scores over time.
This type of reliability refers to a measure of the internal consistency of a test. Shown by reviewing the responses to the items on the first half of the test, and correlate them with the responses on the second half of the test.
-can also compare answers on even and/or odd numbered items of the test.
-the first and second half of the test should measure the same skill to get split-half reliability
*does not measure stability over time
In this type of rating scale, a category (i.e.- hoarseness, hyponasality) is present or absent. Groups do not have numerical relationships to one another.
-items/observations are categorized into discrete groups
This type of rating scale is numerical, and can be arranged according to rank orders or levels.
T/F: Questionnaires are more valid with some poulations, like culturally and linguistically diverse ppl, than some standardized assessments.
The purpose of what type of assessment is to evaluate a client's day-to-day communication skills in naturalistic, socially meaninful contexts?
-DOES NOT depent on standardized test scores
This type of assessment evaluates the client's performanced not against statistical norms, but against a standard of performance selected by the clinician.
-should specify standard of performance
-good when the norms of a standardized test don't apply to the client (culturally linguistically diverse client)
What type of assessment uses a test-teach-retest format, and incorporates intervention into the assessment process.
What alternative to standardized test-based approaches involves collecting samples of a child's word or performance over a period of time, and observing the growth that occurs when instruction is provided?
-look @ samples of writing, videos of client, teacher/parent reports, progress notes, etc.
The MINIMAL COMPETENCY CORE, and the CONTRASTIC ANALYSIS approaches are variants of what type of assessment approach?
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT APPROACH
-samples speech and lang in natural everyday settings
What kind of assessment approach does NOT use standardized tests, but rather is done when the clinician retains necessary elements of the TD approach (case history, lang sample, OFE, etc.) and selects ethnoculturally appropriate tests.
COMPREHENSIVE AND INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT
-use client-specific materials
____________ txt is txt that is given any time after the client was dismiseed from the initial txt. It's an important maintenance strategy and may involves original or new form of txt.
A clinician gives then when the goal is to reduce behaviors byi8mmediately providing a corrective fb when a client gives the wrong response. This contrasts with the indirect methods of response reduction.
DIRECT METHODS OF RESPONSE REDUCTION
Thistxt method is used when each opportunity to produce a response (articulation of specific phoneme) is counted separately.
each opportunity is clearly separated in time (pause after each attempt)
-efficient in establishing target behaviors, not naturalistic though
This clinical procedure is used when NO modeling is given. Pictures, questions, and other stimuli are used to provoke a response.
Ex: "Johnny, what's this?" in response to a picture.
-follow modeled trials
an _____ is a specific target response that ilustrates a broader target behavior. They are individual items trained in therapy sessions.
-ex: the word "soup" in teaching the /s/ or the phrase "two cups" in teaching the regular plural inflection.
When a clinician withholds reinforcement in order to reduce a response, she is practicing ___________.
-often used with behaviors like crying
When txt is generalized, what can one assume?
Evidence that a txt is found effective in one situation, and it can be effective in OTHER situations with other clients and clinicians.
-did it work here with this SLP and this client?
Generalized= it can work in a diff. setting with a diff. SLP and a diff. client.
contrary to direct methods of response reduction, this type of reduction occurs by positively reinforcing the DESIREABLE behaviors, in an effort to reduce the undesired behaviors.
INDIRECT REDUCTION METHODS
-EX: reinforce quiet sitting and other cooperative behavior with verbal praise, but IGNORE uncooperative behaviors
*nothing is done directly to decrease undesireable behaviors.
In selecting txt targets, this strategy is based on the idea that norms (for children) provide the best basis fr selecting target behaviors. Age-based norms dictate the target behaviors.
-good for articulation targets
-not helpful for selecting txt targets for adults
In selecting txt targets, this strategy assumes that behaviors will improve the client's communication and help meet the social, academic, and other demands made on the client.
-focus on behaviors specific to the client's needs
-good for ethnocultural background diversity
In selecting txt targets, this approach is similar to the client-specific one. It looks at the kinds of skills necessary to enhance communication, and what kinds of skills help meet the social and other demands on the client.
FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION APPROACH
-GOOD WITH KIDS AND ADULTS
_____________ reinforcers are events that are aversive and thus reinforce a response that terminates, avoids, or postpones them.
Ex:teasing a boy who stutters, so the boy who stutters learns to be silent.
__________ reinforcers follow a response and thereby strenghtens in. They are necessary in teaching any skill to any client.
___ reinforcers, who reincorcing effects do NOT depend on past learning or conditioning. They are biologically determined b/c of survival value (ex: food and water)
-aka unconditioned reinforcers
*esp useful in infants and toddlers
__________ reinforcers are social or conditioned reinforcers who effects depend on past learning
-ex: social praise and token
a _______ reinforcer is given at the end of a txt session in xchange for tokens the client earned in txt.
Ex: J's Pokemon cards.
NEGATIVE reinforcement ________ behaviors
-strengthens behaviors by terminating an aversive event
-involved in aversive conditioning
Ex: strengthen a stuttering person's avoiding of speaking situations b/c avoidance also helps the person avoid or terminate aversive listener reactions
Whena clinician is assessing the generalized production of trained responses by alternating trained and untrained stimulus, he/she is using ___________ probes.
-train, then assess with trained and untrained stimuli
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Praxis: Ch. 12: Research
Praxis: Ch. 13- Special Topics/Counseling
Praxis: ETS Practice Qs
Praxis: Ch. 14- Professional Issues
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