63 terms

AP Human Geography: Development

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Consumer goods
commodities bought and used by consumers, not manufacturers for producing other goods.
Core-periphery model
Model of the distribution of wealth and development. MDC = core, LDC = periphery.
Crude birth rate
number of live births per 1000 people per year per year. Crude = does not take into account age/sex of said 1000 people.
Dependency Theory
Notion that resources flow from periphery to wealthy core, enriching latter at expense of the former. $ = power = int' influence = dependent places
Developed country
wealthier core country
Development
process of improvement in the material conditions of people thru diffusion of knowledge and technology. Involves full realization and application of resources. can be measured by literacy, education, women's rights, life expectancy, GNP per capita, caloric intake, infant mortality rate, economic status...
Energy consumption
use of energy for light/heat/power/raw material input to manufacturing process. Can be measured. Ex: China consumes 1/2 of the worlds coal produced each year.
Essential goods and services
items and services required to sustain health/life. Goods - food, water, fuel.. Services - hospital, electricity, police/firefighting/emergency responders services... They are not allowed to go on strike or anything because they are essential personnel to the public.
Export Processing Zones
EPZ. Zones established in which favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements are made to attract foreign trade and investment
Foreign Direct Investment
investment by foreign companies in another country's economy
Formal Economy
'legal' economy taxed and monitored by gov't, is included in GNP.
Gender
A socially and culturally constructed set of distinctions between masculine and feminine sets of behaviors that is promoted and expected by society. Male vs Female. vary greatly over time and space.
Gender Empowerment Measure
GEM. Compares ability of men/women to participate in economic/political decisions
Gender Inequality Index
GII. measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality. UN created. Takes into account labor, empowerment, and reproductive health.
Gender Related Development Index
GDI. Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
GIS
geographic information system. layers on computer to analyze data. acquired thru remote sensing.
GDP
Gross Domestic Product. total value of all goods/services produced in a country in a year. Doesn't include moving/overseas $.
GNP
Gross National Product, total value of all goods/services with some adjustments, include income received from abroad.
HDI
Human Development Index. statistic to rank countries into high, middle, or low development based on economic factor (GDP per capita), social factors (literacy rate + amount of education), and demographic factor (life expectancy).
Globalization
increasing uniformity of the world because of diffusion
Infant mortality rate
number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1000 live births. High # = LDC.
Informal sector
untaxed, unregulated, unmonitored. not included in GNP or GDP.
International Monetary Fund
188-country organization working to foster int'l money cooperation, financial stability, int'l trade, higher employment, lower poverty, sustainable growth
Less developed country
periphery. "emerging."
Literacy
ability to read and write by age 15
measures of development
benchmark process to achieving optimal health and wellbeing. physicla, biological, social, educational, mental, emotional, economic, cultural components
Microcredit program
program that provides small loans to the poor, especially women, to encourage small business development
More developed country
seriously do i even have to make this one. wealthier core country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Neocolonialism
Domination by a powerful usually Western nation of another nation that's politically independent but has a weak economy dependent on trade with the Western nation.
NGO
Non governmental organization: int'l organization operating outside political arena but are still influential upon social/environmental/economic issues. Ex: Greenpeace, Red Cross
Primary sector
direct extraction of resources - agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry
Quaternary sector jobs
highly skilled, information based acitivities- management, lawyers, scientific companies
Quinary sector jobs
leadership in quaternary sector jobs. think like ceo kinda.
Rostow's development model
The five stage system that explains how nations move through development
Stage one (rdw)
Traditional society- subsistant agriculture, acitivities not helping w/ development like military and religion
stage two (rdw)
Investment: pre takeoff- limited investment in technology, infrastructure, water, irrigation
stage 3 (rdw)
Take off/success- limited # of industries are successful to compete globally. Ex: textiles, agriculture. Remainder of economy is still traditional
Stage 4 (rdw)
Maturity- tech. diffuses, rapid growth, skilled educated labor force
stage 5 (rdw)
Mass production - shift form heavy industry like steel, energy to consumer goods
Scale
graduated range of values for grading size. just a refresher, small scale maps show large land area w/ less detail, large scale maps show small land area w/ much detail
secondary sector
portion of economy concerned with manufacturing, processing, assembling raw materials
Structural adjustment program
program to reform economic structure, imposed by int' agencies on ldcs to encourage int'l trade by increasing taxes, lowering gov't spending, charging more, controlling inflation, more private corporations.
structural adjustment loans
loans granted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi-periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country (e.g. privatization of certain government entities and opening the country to foreign trade and investment)
technology transfer
The diffusion to or acquisition by one culture or retention of the technology possessed by another, usually more developed, society.
technology gap
contrast of tech available in core vs periphery
tertiary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
third world
The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. includees capitalist venezuela, communist n. korea, rich saudi arabia, poor mali, etc
transition economies
planned economy moving to market-oriented system. Ex: post USSR Russia + satellite states
trickle down/spread effect
diffusion of benefits of economic growth and prosperity from core to periphery. opposite is bottom up effect when periphery is made developed first
value added
the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
world bank
A development assistance organization, composed of 185 member countries which are its joint owners, that extends long-term credit to developing country governments for the purpose of promoting economic development and structural changes. It consists of two organizations: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association.
world systems theory
Wallerstein's theory of the core, semi-periphery, periphery, and external areas. The core benefited the most from the development of a capitalist world economy. THe semi-perihpery was the buffer between the core and periphery. The periphery are states that lack strong central governments or are controlled by other states. External areas are states that maintained their own economic system and for the most part, remained outside of the capitalist world economy
world trade organization
WTO. Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly
Brandt Line
The Brandt Line is a visual depiction of the North-South divide between their economies, based on GDP per capita, proposed by Willy Brandt in the 1980s
BRICS
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
Comparative Advantage
the ability of an individual or group to carry out a particular economic activity (such as making a specific product) more efficiently than another activity.
economic indicators
measure economic performance
economic development
The improvement of living standards by economic growth.
Import Substitution
government policy of encouraging local manufacturers to produce goods that would replace imports
International Division of Labor
the spatial shift of manufacturing industries from advanced capitalist countries to developing countries
subsistance economy
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus
sustainable development
economic development that is conducted without depletion of natural resources
uneven development
the unequal distribution of people, resources, and wealth that is a fundamental characteristic of human geography. Uneven development is evident at the global, regional, national, and urban scales.