Chapter 12 - Cognitive Development
Terms in this set (174)
According to Piaget, when is the typical child entering the stage of concrete operations?
The third stage in Piaget's cognitive developmental theory of moral development, characterized by flexible, reversible thought concerning tangible objects and events.
Lasts until about age 12, it is here where children show the beginnings of the capacity for adult logic.
Their operations (thought processes) typically involve tangible objects over abstract ideas - hence the term concrete.
It is characterized by reversibility and flexibility. They can engage in decentration - focusing on multiple parts of a problem at once.
The children are less egocentric and have expanded their abilities to view the world, themselves and the roles/perspectives of others. They recognize that people see things in different ways because of various situations and values.
According to Piaget, recognition that processes can be undone, leaving things as they were before. It is a factor in conservation of the properties of substances.
Simultaneous focusing (centering) on more than one aspect or dimension of a problem or situation. Being able to focus on multiple parts of a problem at once.
It has implications for conservation and other intellectual undertakings.
Allows concrete operational children to focus on multiple aspects of a problem at the same time. This increases the speed with which they can solve complex problems.
Piaget's theory in which the child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its amount, overall volume, or mass. The ability to understand that objects stay the same in weight, volume, and other properties despite changes in shape or appearance.
The understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes. It is the ability to understand that redistributing material does not affect its mass, number, volume or length.
Involves both reversibility and a realization that objects can have multiple properties. A tall glass, for example, may hold less than a short glass because the short glass is wider.
This accomplishment occurs during the concrete operational stage of development between ages 7 and 11.
You can often see the lack of conservation in children when there are several different sizes of juice on a table and they choose the glass that is the tallest because they perceive it as having more juice inside of it (even though the tallest glass may also be the thinnest). All the glasses may have the same amount of juice in them, but children who haven't accomplished conservation will perceive the tall glass as being most full.
Conservation of mass usually develops first, followed by conservation of weight and volume.
What did Piaget say about the gains of the concrete operational stage?
That the gains of the concrete operations stage are tied to specific events that achievement in one area does not necessarily transfer to achievement in another.
The principle that if A is greater than B in a property, and B is greater than C, then A is greater than C. The ability to compare multiple options and make a decision.
Refers to the ability to recognize relationships among various things in a serial order. Ex: when told to put away books according to height, the child recognizes that he starts with placing the tallest one on one end of the bookshelf and the shortest one ends up at the other end.
How do researchers asses whether or not children understand the principle of transitivity?
By asking them to place objects in a series, or order, according to some property or trait.
Ex: lining up people according to height, age, or weight. This is called seriation.
Placing objects in an order or series according to a property or trait.
At what age are children able of concrete operations?
7 or 8 years old. They can go about a task systematically, usually without error.
What does knowledge of the principle of transitivity enable concrete-operational children to do?
Go about a task unerringly. They can work in multiple dimensions such as size or brightness simultaneously.
At what age are children in transition between the pre-operational and concrete-operational stage?
Age 6-7. They may get a proper sequence when arranging items but usually do by trial and error. Their overall perspective is limited focusing on pairs at a time and do not encompass the ability to look at the overall array. They cannot work in multiple dimensions simultaneously.
The principle that one category or class of things can include several subclasses.
This ability includes an understanding of which objects belong to which category, which represents an understanding of the principles of assimilation and accommodation.
What did Piaget believe about educational practices and a child's cognitive development?
1) That learning involves active discovery. Give the child interesting and stimulating materials.
2) Instruction should be geared to to the child's level of development.
3) Learning to take into account the perspectives of others is a key ingredient in the development of both cognition and morality.
What is the criticism regarding Piaget's theory?
That he underestimated children's abilities at various ages.
Modified task demands suggest children are capable of conservation an other concrete-operational tasks earlier than he suggested and that cognitive skills may develop more independently and continuously - not in stages.
Gradual accumulation of problem solving abilities is more likely than any sudden changes.
However, the sequences of development still appear to remain the same.
Complex with both cognitive and behavioural aspects. It concerns the basis on which children make judgements that an act is right or wrong.
Both Piaget and Kohlberg argued that moral reasoning exhibits the same cognitive developmental pattern around the world. But the considerations that children weigh at a given age are likely to reflect the values of their social and cultural setting.
It is also theorized to reflect the orderly unfolding of cognitive processes. Its related to their overall cognitive development.
What did Piaget conclude about children's moral judgements?
That they develop in two major overlapping stages: moral realism and autonomous morality.
The first stage in Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory of moral development. Children judge acts/behavior as moral when they conform to authority or to the rules of a game. Morality is perceived as embedded in the structure of the universe.
Emerges around the age of 5. Children tend to judge how wrong an action is based on the amount of damage done (breaking 15 cups versus breaking one cup) more than intentions (purposeful cup breaking versus accidental cup breaking).
Also called objective morality which is the perception of morality as objective, or as existing outside the cognitive functioning of people; a characteristic of moral realism.
They perceive rules as embedded, they reflect the ultimate reality and right and wrong are seen as absolute.
Immanent justice is part of this stage - negative experiences are punishment for prior misdeeds.
They are tough and don't excuse a person who makes a mistake by accident. Ex: Piaget's cups experiment - the child who breaks more cups by accident over a child who breaks one on purpose is more to blame.
The perception of morality as objective, or as existing outside the cognitive functioning of people; a characteristic of Piaget's stage of moral realism.
The view that a negative experience is a direct consequence of wrongdoing, reflecting the belief that morality is embedded within the structure of the universe. The concept that a wrong behavior and punishment are inevitably linked.
Also called automatic retribution. A type of reasoning that consists of thinking that negative experiences are punishment for prior misdeeds, even when realistic causal links are absent.
Ex: If a 5 or 6 year old steals or lies they believe they will be caught or punished. If they trip and hurt themselves, they might assume that the accident represents punishment for a transgression. A focus on the amount of damage and not on intentions.
A consequence of viewing rules as embedded and absolute - part of moral realism.
The second stage in Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory of moral development. Children base moral judgments on the intentions of the wrongdoer more so than on the amount of damage done. Social rules are viewed as agreements that can be changed.
When children reach 9 to 11 their moral judgments tend to become more self-governed. Children come to view social rules as arbitrary agreements that can be changed. They no longer automatically view obedience to authority figures as right. They realize that circumstances can require breaking rules.
Rules now are based on group consensus rather than instructions from an authority figure; more importance is given to the intentions of others. Greater role taking ability probably facilitates these advancements.
They are capable of flexible operational thought. They can focus simultaneously on multiple dimensions, so they consider not only social rules but the motives of a wrongdoer.
They also have greater capacity to take the point of view of others and to empathize. Decentration and increased empathy allow children to weigh intentions more heavily over the amount of damage done. They become capable of considering mitigating circumstances.
Piaget assumed it developed as a result of cooperative peer relationships but also that parents could help foster it by creating egalitarian relationships with their children and explaining reasons behind social rules.
What is Kohlberg's most famous moral dilemma?
Involves a man stealing a drug to save the life of his wife.
Kohlberg was very interested in the kinds of reasons children gave for whether or not the man should have stolen the drug and how these reasons tended to change with the age of the child.
Kohlberg described three levels of moral development with two stages embedded within each level.
How did Kohlberg advance the cognitive developmental theory of moral development?
By elaborating on the kinds of information children use and on the complexities of moral reasoning.
He emphasized the importance of being able to view the moral world from the perspective of another person.
According to his theory, children and adults arrive at yes or no answers to moral dilemmas for different reasons. The reasons can be classified to the level of moral development they reflect.
As a stage theorist, he argued that the developmental stages of moral reasoning follow the same sequence in all children. Children progress at different rates, and not all children (or adults) reach the highest stage. But they all must experience the first stage before they enter the second.
According to his theory, there are three levels of moral development and two stages within each level.
According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments are based largely on expectations of rewards or punishments.
They based their moral judgments on the consequences of their behaviour. The child focuses on the consequences of their behavior for themselves, avoiding punishment and reaping as many rewards as one can.
Level 1 - Stages 1 & 2.
Stage 1 is oriented toward obedience and punishment. Good behaviour = obedience which avoids punishment. Stage 2 good behaviour allows people to satisfy their own needs and the needs of others.
In a study of children aged 7-16, Kohlberg found that Stage 1 and 2 types of moral judgments were offered most frequently by 7 and 10 year olds. There was a steep falling off of Stage 1 and 2 after age 10.
According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments largely reflect social rules and conventions.
Right and wrong are judged by conformity to conventional (family, religious, societal) standards of right and wrong. They are more concerned with pleasing others and doing their duty: obeying the law. Conventional level thinking tends to emerge during middle childhood.
Level 2 - Stages 3 & 4.
According to stage 3 orientation "good boy/good girl", its good to meet the needs and expectations of others.
Moral behaviour is what is "normal" - what the majority does. Judgments also focus on the role of sympathy - the importance of doing what will make someone feel good or better.
Stage 4, moral judgments are based on rules that maintain social order. Showing respect for authority and duty are highly valued. Many people don't develop beyond this level.
Kohlberg said Stage 3 and 4 types of judgments emerge during middle judgment. Absent among 7 year olds but reported in 20% of 10 year olds and higher in adolescents.
Kohlberg's Pre-Conventional Level and Stages of Moral Development
Level 1 - Stages 1 & 2
-Typically begins in early childhood.
-Tends to be used less often in middle childhood.
-Judgements are guided by obedience and the prospect of punishment (consequences of behaviour).
-Naively egotistic, instrumental orientation (things are right when they satisfy people's needs).
Kohlberg's Conventional Level and Stages of Moral Development
Level 2 - Stages 3 & 4
-Typically begins in middle childhood.
-Good-boy/good-girl orientation (moral behaviours helps others and is socially approved).
-Law and order orientation (moral behaviour is doing one's duty and showing respect for authority).
Kohlberg's Post-Conventional Level and Stages of Moral Development
Level 3 - Stages 5 & 6
-Typically begins in adolescence.
-May not develop at all.
-Contractual, legalistic orientation (one must weigh pressing human needs against society's need to maintain social order).
-Universal ethical principles orientation (people must follow universal ethical principles and their own conscience, even if it means breaking the law).
According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments are derived from moral principles and people look to themselves to set moral standards.
A level based on the person's own moral standards. If the level of reasoning develops at all, its found among adolescents and adults.
Does not occur in a large number of adults, but it may emerge in adolescence. It involves the understanding that laws only represent agreements necessary for the survival of society and may need to be changed; in addition individuals may have self-chosen ethical principles that take precedent over any law.
The view in which cognitive processes are compared to the functions of computers. The theory deals with the input, storage and retrieval, manipulation, and output of information.
The focus is on the development of children's strategies for solving problems - their "mental programs". Focuses on children's capacity for memory and their use of cognitive strategies, such as the way they focus their attention.
Seeing children as similar to computer systems - obtaining information (input) from the surrounding environment, storing, retrieving, manipulating, and responding to it overtly (output).
The goal of this approach is to learn how children's "mental programs" develop and theorists study the development of children's strategies for processing information.
The downfall of this approach is it ignores children as self-aware individuals who are capable of creativity and intuition unlike computers which are not.
Key aspects of information-processing include:
(1) development of selective attention.
(2) development of the capacity to store and retrieve information.
(3) development of strategies for processing information.
What does some of the research done on information processing say about Piaget's observations about children?
Young children many not be able to conserve because they have difficulty paying attention to multiple aspects of the problem.
Thoughts about how humans store and retrieve information have led to advancements in our understanding of memory.
Research shows that auditory stimuli can be maintained longer in short-term memory than visual information. It would be wise, then, to assist children in encoding information auditorially to enhance memory.
As the child gets older, she or he will experience an increase in the number of chunks of information that can be held in short-term memory.
The average adult, for example, can hold about seven chunks of information in short-term memory while the average 5-year old can only hold about two chunks of information in short-term memory.
What are the key elements of the information processing approach?
-Development of selective attention (children's abilities to focus on the elements of a problem and find solutions).
-Development of the capacity for storage and retrieval of information (the capacity of memory, understanding of the processes of memory and how to strengthen and use memory).
-Development of strategies for processing information (finding the correct formula and applying it).
What is a key cognitive process?
The ability to pay attention to relevant features of a task. To focus attention and screen out distractions.
What cognitive process advances steadily throughout middle childhood?
Selective attention. The ability to pay attention relevant features of a task; focusing attention and screening out distractions.
What do preoperational children who are engaged in problem solving tend to focus on?
They centre their attention on one element of the problem at a time - a major reason why they lack conservation.
What do concrete operational children who are engaged in problem solving tend to focus on?
They can attend to multiple aspects of a problem at once, which enables them to conserve number, volume, mass, etc.
The processes by which we store and retrieve information.
The structure of memory that is first encountered by sensory input. Information is maintained in sensory memory for only a fraction of a second.
When looking at an object, the visual impression lasts only a fraction of a second then the trace of the stimulus decays. It applies to all senses.
Another term for short term memory.
The structure of memory that can hold a sensory stimulus for up to 30 seconds after the trace decays. Also called short-term memory.
The ability to maintain information in short term memory depends on cognitive strategies and on the basic capacity to continue to perceive a vanished stimulus.
Memory function in middle childhood seems adult like in organization and strategies, showing only gradual improvement in a quantitative sense through early adolescence.
Auditory stimuli can be maintained longer in short-term memory than visual stimuli.
What is a strategy for promoting memory?
To encode visual simuli as sounds or auditory stimulation.
Ex: repeating out loud or in memory someone's name - rehearsal.
What are the three major processes or structures that psychologists divide memory functioning into?
Sensory, working (short term) and long term memory.
To transform sensory input into a form that is more readily processed.
A memorization technique based on repetition.
Simple associative learning based on repetition.
Ex: how a child learns the alphabet. The alphabet has 26 chunks of information. Through repetition, M triggers N, O triggers P, and so on. A typical young child won't be able to answer the question "What letter comes after L?" But if you recite the alphabet, I, J, K, L... the child will likely say N, O, P. An older child around 5 will realize they can recite the alphabet to find the answer.
What can the basic capacity of short term (working) memory be described in terms of?
The number of "bits" or chunks of information that can be kept in memory at once.
Ex: To remember a phone number you need to keep 7 chunks of information in short-term memory simultaneously and rehearse them consecutively.
How much information can an adult keep in short-term (working) memory at a time?
Classic research says approximately 7 chunks of information - plus or minus 2.
How many chunks of information can the typical 5-6 year old store in short term (working) memory at at time?
2 chunks of information at a time. This ability increases throughout middle childhood.
Adolescents, like adults, can keep 7 chunks.
Why do young children fail at certain Piagetian tasks?
Because certain tasks require several cognitive strategies at a time and young children cannot simultaneously hold many pieces of information in their short-term memories.
Preschoolers can only solve problems that have 1 or 2 steps but older children can retain information from earlier steps as they proceed to subsequent steps.
The memory structure capable of relatively permanent storage of information.
May last for years, days, or a lifetime. There is no known limit to the amount of information that can be stored in long-term memory.
Atkinson and Shiffrin Memory Model
Sensory information enters the registers of sensory memory, where memory traces are briefly held before decaying.
When we attend to the information, much is transferred into working (short-term) memory, where it may decay or be displaced if it is not transferred to long-term memory.
Using rehearsal (repetition) or elaborative strategies to transfer memories to long-term memory, memories can be retrieved through appropriate search strategies.
If information is organized poorly, or if we can't find cues to retrieve it, it may be lost for all practical purposes.
How is information transferred from short-term to long-term memory?
Rehearsal is a method but no guarantee that information will be stored permanently.
Making the information meaningful by linking it to past learning helps with storage. Purposefully relating the new material to well-known information is called an elaborative strategy. It builds semantic codes which help one to retrieve information in the future.
A code based on the meaning of information.
A method for increasing retention of new information by relating it to well-known information.
How do preschoolers tend to organize their memories?
By grouping objects that share the same function.
Involves retrieval of information from memory. As children develop, their capacity for recalling information increases.
Improvement in memory is linked to their ability to quickly process (scan and categorize) information.
Children's memory is a good overall indicator of their cognitive ability.
Fourth graders are more likely to categorize and recall pictures than second graders in categorization experiments.
Children are more likely to accurately recall information when strongly motivated such as fear of poor grades or rewards.
Awareness of and control of one's cognitive abilities, as shown by the intentional use of cognitive strategies in solving problems.
The development of metacognition is shown by having the ability to formulate problems, being aware of the processes required to solve a problem, activating cognitive strategies, maintaining focus on the problem, and checking answers.
Metamemory is an aspect of metacognition.
Knowledge of the functions and processes involved in one's storage and retrieval of information (memory), as shown by the use of cognitive strategies to retain information.
An aspect of metacognition. Specifically refers to children's awareness of the functioning of their memory.
Metamemory is advanced in the sense that you know you can't effectively study and remember a textbook while simultaneously watching a TV show.
How do children use metamemory and rehearsal?
Older children show greater insight into how memory works and they store and retrieve information more effectively than younger children. They show more knowledge of strategies that can be used to facilitate memory.
Preschoolers will use rehearsal if someone suggests it but not until 6 or 7 will they use rehearsal on their own. Older elementary children become better at adapting their memory strategies to fit the characteristics of the task at hand. As they develop they are likely to use selective reversal to remember important information by selecting through mass amounts of data and using rehearsal to focus on what they are trying to remember. Selectivity in rehearsal is found among adults and few 10 year olds.
Are children susceptible to inaccuracies during legal testimony?
Yes. Younger children can be misled by leading questions but by 10 or 11 they are no more suggestible than adults.
Research indicates that repeated questioning may lead children to make up events that never happened to them. A study looking at preschoolers questioned them each week for 11 weeks about events that did or did not happen. By the 11th week, 58% of children reported at least one false event as true.
What is attained by one's efforts and presumed to be made possible by one's abilities. What has been learned, and the knowledge and skills that have been gained by experience. It involves specific content areas such as English, math and history.
Achievement tests are used to measure what children have learned in academic areas.
A complex and controversial concept, defined by David Wechsler as "the capacity to understand the world and resourcefulness to cope with its challenges."
It implies the capacity to make adaptive choices (from the Latin INTER meaning "among" and LEGERE meaning "to choose").
Usually regarded as a child's underlying competence or cognitive abilities
whereas achievement is a child's acquired knowledge or performance.
What do most psychologists say about intelligence vs. achievement?
Most psychologist agree that intelligence provides the cognitive basis for academic achievement. It is usually perceived as a child's underlying competence or learning ability. Whereas achievement involves a child's acquired competencies or performance.
Most say that many competencies underlying intelligence manifest themselves during middle childhood, when most children are first exposed to formal schooling
They disagree about the nature and origins of a child's underlying competence or learning ability.
A condition or quality that brings about a result. In the case of intelligent behaviour - a cluster of related items, such as those found on an intelligence or personality tests.
Many investigators have viewed intelligence as consisting of one or more major mental abilities, or factors.
A statistical technique that enables researchers to determine the relationships among a large number of items, such as test items.
Governed by three.
Descriptive of Sternberg's view that intellectual functioning has three aspects: analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.
Suggested that various behaviours that we consider intelligent have a common, underlying factor G, or general intelligence. He thought G represented broad reasoning and problem-solving abilities.
He noted that people who excel in one area generally show the capacity to excel in others. He also noted that even the most capable people seem more capable in some areas such as music or business, and for this reason he suggested S which is specific capabilities accounting for a number of individual abilities.
He also developed factor analysis which is a statistical technique that enables researchers to determine which items on tests seem to be measuring the same things.
G (General Intelligence)
Created by Spearman, G represents broad reasoning and problem solving abilities.
Researchers continue to find a key role for G in performance on many intelligence tests.
Jackson and Rushton claim that G underlies scores on the verbal and quantitative parts of the SAT. Other researchers connect G with academic achievement and working memory.
American psychologist who used factor analysis and concluded that intelligence tests consist of several specific factors which he termed Primary Mental Abilities including visual-spatial abilities, perceptual speed, numerical ability, ability to learn the meaning of words, ability to bring the right word rapidly and the ability to reason.
He suggested that an individual might be able to rapidly develop lists of words that rhyme but might not be particularly able to solve math problems.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
A three-pronged (triarchic) theory of intelligence which includes analytical intelligence, creative intelligence and practical intelligence.
Sternberg said creativity is a basic facet of intelligence.
Academic abilities; ability to solve problems, compare and contrast, judge, evaluate, criticize, and acquire new knowledge.
Creativity and insight; ability to invent, discover, suppose and theorize. To cope with novel situations and profit from experience. It enables people to relate novel situations to familiar situations (perceiving differences and differences) and fosters adaptation.
Street smarts; ability to adapt to the demands of one's environment and apply knowledge in practical situations.
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Gardner argued that there are many intelligences, not only one, including bodily talents as expressed through dancing or gymnastics. Each intelligence is presumed to have its neurological base in a different part of the brain. Each is an inborn talent that must be developed through educational experiences if it is to be expressed.
Intelligence reflects more than academic ability. Each kind differs in quality and the various intelligences based in different areas of the brain can overlap.
Three of them are verbal ability, logical-mathematical reasoning, and spatial intelligence (visual-spatial skills). He also includes bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence (empathy and ability to relate to others), personal knowledge (self-insight) and existential intelligence which involves dealing with large philosophical life issues
The nine different intelligences are linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalist, spatial, bodily-kinaesthetic, musical, interpersonal, interpersonal, and existential.
What do critics says of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?
They agree that people function more intelligently in some areas of life than others and agree people have special talents even in overall intelligence is average, but they question whether special talents are actual "intelligences". Language skills, reasoning ability, and the ability to solve math problems seem to be more closely related to what most deem "intelligence" than musical or physical talent.
However there is no clear consensus among psychologists as to what intelligence actually is.
David Wechsler's Definition of Intelligence
The originator of the most widely used series of contemporary intelligence test, and he defined intelligence as "the capacity of an individual to understand the world and the resourcefulness to cope with its challenges."
He said intelligence involves accurate representation of the world and effective problem solving (adapting to one's environment, profiting from experience, selecting the appropriate formulas and strategies, etc.)
Salovey and Mayer developed the theory which holds that social and emotional skills are a form of intelligence, similar to academic skills.
Emotional and social intelligence are similar to two of Gardner's intelligences: awareness of one's inner feelings and sensitivity to others feelings. It also involves control/regulation of one's emotions.
The theory suggests that self and social awareness are best learned during childhood. Failure to develop emotional intelligence is connected with childhood depression and aggression. Childhood experiences may help mold the brain's emotional responses to life challenges.
An example of social intelligence would be to smile - as it is a universal communication facial cue.
General Vs. Specific Factors - Spearman
- Spearman created factor analysis to study intelligence.
- There is strong evidence for the general factor (g) in intelligence.
- (s) factors are specific abilities, skills and talents.
The concept of (g) remains in use today - a century later.
Primary Mental Abilities - Thurstone
- Thurstone used factor analysis.
- There are many "primary" abilities.
- All abilities and factors are academically orientated.
- Other researchers (Guilford) claim to have found hundreds of factors.
- The more factors that are claimed, the more they overlap.
Triarchic Theory - Sternberg
- Intelligence is three-pronged, with analytical, creative and practical components.
- Analytical intelligence in analogous to academic ability.
- The theory coincides with the views of Aristotle.
- Critics do not view creativity as a component of intelligence.
Multiple Intelligences - Gardner
- Gardner theorized distinct "intelligences".
- Intelligences include academic, personal, social, talents, and philosophical intelligences.
- The theory posits different bases in the brain for different intelligences.
- Proponents continue to expand the number of "intelligences".
- Critics see little value in theorizing "intelligences" rather than aspects of intelligence.
- Most critics consider musical and bodily skills to be special talents, not "intelligences".
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Originally, a ratio obtained by dividing a child's score (or mental age) on an intelligence test by his or her chronological age. In general, a score on an intelligence test.
Stanford-Binet and Wechsler scales are the most popular and widely used. They have been carefully developed and revised. Kids who fall below or above certain scores are placed in special classes for gifted or deficient children.
What are the two most widely used intelligence scales?
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Scale.
Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale
Originated in the work of Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in France. The French school system sought a measure to to identify children who would not fare in regular classes so they could receive special attention.
Came into use in 1905.
Binet assumed intelligence increased with age, thus older children would get more items correct. He arranged items in order of difficulty. Items answered correctly by appx 60% of the children at a given age level were considered to reflect average intelligence functioning at that age. Older kids answered more questions and younger kids less.
It yields a score called mental age which shows the intellectual level the child is functioning at.
The scale was adapted for American by Lewis Terman and named Stanford Binet because of his work at Stanford.
It can be used with children from 2years and older.
The IQ indicate the relationship between a child's mental age and their chronological age.
The IQ is computed by the formula:
IQ = Mental Age / Chronological Age x 100
Lewis Terman adapted the Binet-Simon scale for use with American children. Because Terman carried out his work at Stanford University, he renamed the test the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
The accumulated months of credit that a person earns on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
The MA shows the intellectual level at which a child is functioning.
A person's age.
Wechsler developed a series of scales for use with school-age children (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; WISC), younger children (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence; WPPSI), and adults (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; WAIS).
The Wechsler scales group test questions into subtests with each subtest measuring a different intellectual task. The test compares a person's performance on one type of task (such as defining words) with her or his performance on another (such as using blocks to construct geometric designs).
The Wechsler scales thus suggest children's strengths and weaknesses and provide overall measures of intellectual functioning.
Some subtests measure verbal while others spatial-relations. Verbal subtests require knowledge of verbal concepts, whereas performance subtests require familiarity with spatial-relations concepts
Vary according to a bell-shaped, or "normal," curve. Scores tend to cluster around the central score (100) and then to decrease in frequency as they move upward and downward.
Controversy with Intelligence Tests
Most psychologists and educational specialists consider intelligence tests to be at least somewhat biased against African Americans and members of lower social classes.
Intelligence tests were used to prevent many Europeans and others from immigrating to the United States.
The broad types of achievement measured by these tests reflect intelligence, they might also, of course, reflect cultural familiarity with the concepts required to answer questions correctly.
The tests seem to reflect middle-class European American culture in the United States.
Supporters of standard intelligence tests point out that they appear to do a decent job of measuring the cognitive skills that are valued in modern high-tech societies.
Scoring well on intelligence tests requires a certain type of cultural experience, the tests are said to have a cultural bias. Children reared in African American neighborhoods could be at a disadvantage, not because of differences in intelligence but because of cultural differences.
A factor hypothesized to be present in intelligence tests that bestows an advantage on test takers from certain cultural or ethnic backgrounds but that does not reflect true intelligence.
Descriptive of a test in which cultural biases have been removed. On such a test, test takers from different cultural backgrounds would have an equal opportunity to earn scores that reflect their true abilities.
The Culture-Fair Intelligence Test evaluates reasoning ability through the child's comprehension of the rules that govern a progression of geometric designs.
What is the problem with culture fair tests?
Middle-class children still outperform lower-class children on them. Middle-class children can be more likely to have basic familiarity with materials such as blocks and pencils and paper. They are more likely than disadvantaged children to have arranged blocks into various designs (practice relevant to the Cattell test).
Second, culture-free tests do not predict academic success as well as other intelligence tests, and scholastic aptitude remains the central concern of educators.
What are the various patterns of intellectual development?
Rapid advances in intellectual functioning occur during childhood. Within a few years, children gain the ability to symbolize experiences and manipulate symbols to solve increasingly complex problems. Their vocabularies leap, and their sentences become more complex. Their thought processes become increasingly logical and abstract, and they gain the capacity to focus on two or more aspects of a problem at once.
How does intellectual growth occur in middle childhood?
In at least two major spurts.
The first growth spurt occurs at about the age of 6. This spurt coincides with entry into a school system and also with the shift from preoperational to concrete-operational thought. The school experience may begin to help crystallize intellectual functioning at this time.
The second spurt occurs at about age 10 or 11 Once they reach middle childhood, children appear to undergo relatively more stable patterns of gains in intellectual functioning, although there are still spurts.
What factors influence changes in intelligence test scores?
Changes in the child's home environment, social and economic circumstances, educational experiences, and even intake of B vitamins such as folic acid.
Intelligence test scores change throughout childhood, many children show reasonably consistent patterns of below-average or above-average performance.
What is the average IQ score in the USA?
What is the average IQ score of children in the USA?
1/2 obtain scores in the average range from 90 to 110. 95% between 70-130. 5% below 70 and above 130. They are labeled either gifted or intellectually disabled.
Characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
Out of all the intellectually disabled children, how many children are mildly disabled?
Most are capable of adjusting to the demands of educational institutions and eventually to society at large.
Children with Down syndrome are most likely to fall within the moderately disabled range.
Moderately disabled children can learn to speak; to dress, feed, and clean themselves; and eventually engage in useful work under supportive conditions, as in a sheltered workshop. However, they usually do not acquire skills in reading and arithmetic.
Substandard intellectual performance that is presumed to stem from lack of opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills considered important within a cultural setting.
In which the child is biologically normal but does not develop age-appropriate behaviors at the normal pace because of social isolation of one kind or another.
For example, the later-born children of impoverished families may have little opportunity to interact with adults or play with stimulating toys. As a result, they may not develop sophisticated language skills or the motivation to acquire the kinds of knowledge that are valued in a technologically oriented society.
Children with cultural-familial disability can change dramatically when enriched learning experiences are provided, especially at early ages. Head Start programs, for example, have enabled many children at risk for cultural-familial disability to function at above-average levels.
Ethnic and SES Differences In IQ Scores
Research suggests that differences in IQ exist among socioeconomic and ethnic groups.
U.S. children from lower-income families obtain IQ scores some 10-15 points lower than those obtained by children from the middle and upper classes.
African American children tend to obtain IQ scores below those obtained by their European American counterparts. Latin American and Native American children also tend to score below the norms for European Americans.
Youth of Asian descent frequently outscore youth of European backgrounds on achievement tests in math and science, including the math portion of the SAT. People of Asian descent are more likely than European Americans, African Americans, and Latin Americans to graduate from high school and complete college. Asian Americans are highly overrepresented in competitive U.S. colleges and universities.
Cram schools which prepare Japanese children for entrance exams to private schools and colleges.
The ability to generate novel solutions to problems; a trait characterized by flexibility, ingenuity, and originality. The ability to do things that are novel and useful.
Creativity as the ability to make unusual, sometimes remote, associations to the elements of a problem to generate new combinations. An essential aspect of a creative response is the leap from the elements of the problem to the novel solution.
What are the characteristics of creative children and adults?
Creative children and adults can solve problems to which there are no preexisting solutions, no tried and tested formulas. Creative children share a number of qualities:
-They take chances.
-They refuse to accept limitations and try to do the impossible.
-They appreciate art and music.
-They use the materials around them to make unique things.
-They challenge social norms. (Creative children are often independent and nonconformist, but independence and nonconformity do not necessarily make a child creative.
-Creative children may be at odds with their teachers because of their independent views.
-They take unpopular stands.
-They examine ideas that other people accept at face value.
A thought process that attempts to focus on the single best solution to a problem.
Thought is limited to present facts; the problem solver narrows his or her thinking to find the best solution. (A child uses convergent thinking to arrive at the right answer to a multiple-choice question or to a question on an intelligence test.)
A thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to problems; free and fluent association to the elements of a problem.
Creative thinking tends to be divergent. The child associates freely to the elements of the problem, allowing "leads" to run a nearly limitless course. (Children use divergent thinking when they are trying to generate ideas to answer an essay question or to find keywords to search on the Internet.)
Do family members have similar IQ levels?
The IQ scores of identical (monozygotic [MZ]) twins are more alike than the scores for any other pairs, even when the twins have been reared apart.
The average correlation for MZ twins reared together is +0.85; for those reared apart, it is +0.67.
Correlations between the IQ scores of fraternal (dizygotic [DZ]) twins, siblings, and parents and children are generally comparable, as is their degree of genetic relationship. The correlations tend to vary from about +0.40 to +0.59.
Correlations between the IQ scores of children and their natural parents (+0.48) are higher than those between children and their adoptive parents (+0.18).
Correlations are higher between people who are more closely related, yet people who are reared together have more similar IQ scores than people who are reared apart. Such findings suggest that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to IQ scores.
Genetic pairs (such as MZ twins) reared together show higher correlations between IQ scores than similar genetic pairs (such as other MZ twins) who were reared apart. This finding holds for MZ twins, siblings, parents, children, and unrelated people. For this reason, the same group of studies that suggests that heredity plays a role in determining IQ scores also suggests that the environment plays a role.
The degree to which the variations in a trait from one person to another can be attributed to, or explained by, genetic factors.
What do studies suggest the heritability of intelligence to be?
Between 40% and 60%. About half of the difference between your IQ score and the IQ scores of other people can be explained in terms of your genes and their genes.
When children are separated from their biological parents at early ages, one can argue that strong relationships between their IQ scores and those of their natural parents reflect genetic influences.
Strong relationships between their IQs and those of their adoptive parents, on the other hand, might reflect environmental influences.
Classic projects involving adopted children in Colorado, Texas, and Minnesota have found a stronger relationship between the IQ scores of adopted children and their biological parents than between the IQ scores of adopted children and their adoptive parents.
Spearman suggested that the behaviors we consider intelligent have a common factor, which he labeled ____________.
Gardner argues for the existence of _____________, each of which is based in a different area of the brain.
The IQ indicates the relationship between a child's ________________ and chronological age.
The Wechsler scales have subtests that assess _______________ tasks and performance tasks.
If scoring well on an IQ test requires a certain type of cultural experience, then the tests are said to have a cultural _______________.
The first spurt in intellectual growth occurs at about the age of ______________.
Children of lower socioeconomic status in the United States obtain IQ scores some ________________ points lower than those obtained by middle- and upper-class children.
Children tend to use (convergent or divergent) thinking when they are thinking creatively.
Studies find that there is a stronger relationship between the IQ scores of adopted children and their (adoptive or biological) parents than between the IQ scores of adopted children and their (adoptive or biological) parents.
Children's ability to understand and use language becomes increasingly sophisticated in middle childhood. Children also learn to read.
How does children's vocabulary and grammar develop in middle childhood?
By the age of 6, the child's vocabulary has expanded to 10,000 words, give or take a few thousand.
By 7-9 years of age, most children realize that words can have different meanings, and they become entertained by riddles and jokes that require semantic sophistication.
By the age of 8 or 9, children are able to form "tag questions," in which the question is tagged on to the end of a declarative sentence. Ex:. "You want more ice cream, don't you?"
Children also make subtle advances in articulation and in their capacity to use complex grammar. Preschool-age children have difficulty understanding passive sentences, such as "The truck was hit by the car," but children in the middle years have less difficulty interpreting the meanings of passive sentences.
During these years, children develop the ability to use connectives. Ex: "I'll eat my spinach, but I don't want to." They also learn to form indirect object-direct object constructions. Ex: "She showed her sister the toy."
What cognitive skills are involved in reading?
Reading is a complex activity that depends on perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic processes. Reading relies on skills in the integration of visual and auditory information. Accurate awareness of the sounds in the child's language is an extremely important factor in subsequent reading achievement. Reading also requires the ability to make basic visual discriminations. In order to recognize letters, children must be able to perceive the visual differences between letters such as b and d, and p and q.
During the preschool years, neurological maturation and experience combine to enable most children to make visual discriminations between different letters with relative ease.
Whole Language Approach
A method for learning to read in which children come to recognize words in a variety of contexts through repeated exposure to them.
When they read, children integrate visual and auditory information (they associate what they see with sounds), whether they are using the whole-language approach or the phonetic method.
This approach emphasizes the use and recognition of words in everyday situations and in books. The word-recognition method requires that children associate visual stimuli such as cat and Robert with the sound combinations that produce the spoken words "cat" and "Robert." This capacity is usually acquired by rote learning, or extensive repetition.
A method for learning to read in which children decode the sounds of words via their knowledge of the sounds of letters and letter combinations.
Children first learn to associate written letters and letter combinations (such as ph or sh) with the sounds they are meant to indicate. Then they sound out words from left to right, decoding them.
The phonetic method has the obvious advantage of giving children skills that they can use to decode (read) new words.
The phonetic method can also slow them down when it comes to familiar words because they tend to read familiar words by the word-recognition (whole language) method and to make some effort to sound out new words.
Words that are immediately recognized on the basis of familiarity with their overall shapes, rather than decoded.
Using or capable of using two languages with nearly equal or equal facility.
Is is true that bilingual children have more academic problems?
Bilingual children do show some confusion about which language is which from time to time, or which word is appropriate from time to time, but this difference from monolingual children may occur largely because the vocabularies used at home and in the school are not identical.
There is some "mixing" of languages by bilingual children, but they can generally separate the two languages from an early age.
Today most linguists consider it advantageous for children to be bilingual because knowledge of more than one language contributes to the complexity of the child's cognitive processes.
Bilingual children are more likely to understand that the symbols used in language are arbitrary. Monolingual children are more likely to think, erroneously, that the word dog is somehow intertwined with the nature of the beast. Bilingual children therefore have somewhat more cognitive flexibility.
Reading relies on skills in the integration of ____________ and auditory information.
In using the _____________ method of reading, children associate written letters and letter combinations (such as ph or sh) with the sounds they indicate.
Bilingual children generally (can or cannot) separate the two languages at an early age.
Today most linguists consider it a(n) (advantage or disadvantage) to be bilingual.
What is meant by the stage of concrete operations?
1. About age 7 to 12.
2. Concrete thinking deals with tangible objects rather than abstract ideas, and shows reversibility.
3. Children are less egocentric than when in the pre-operational stage and are also able to engage in decentration.
4. Conservation: Children now demonstrate understanding of conservation and can recognize several properties or dimensions of objects simultaneously.
5. Conservation in all tasks does not develop at the same time: conservation of mass develops first, typically followed by weight and volume.
6. Transitivity: Concrete operational children demonstrate understanding of transitivity, that is, if A exceeds B in some property and B exceeds C, then A must also exceed C.
7. Piaget assessed transitivity through seriation tasks, in which children are asked to arrange objects in order according to a specific property (or properties, but decentration is required to focus on more than one dimension). Concrete operational children are successful at large seriation tasks.
8. Many researchers believe that Piaget underestimated the age at which children can seriate because of his research design.
9. Class Inclusions: Concrete operational children demonstrate an understanding of class inclusion, but only for concrete objects (not abstract symbols).
Can we apply Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development to educational practices?
1. Piaget believed learning involves active discovery, thus educators should find stimulating materials instead of imposing knowledge.
2. Piaget believed instruction should be geared to student's level of cognitive development.
3. Piaget thought the development of perspective taking is key for cognitive and moral gains.
4. Evaluation of Piaget's Theory: Piaget tended to underestimate children's abilities.
5. Cognitive development may be more continuous than Piaget believed, as evidenced by children's gradual ability to master different tasks within same stage (e.g., conservation tasks).
How does Piaget view the development of moral reasoning?
Both Piaget believed that moral reasoning followed a cognitive developmental pattern in all children.
Moral realism (objective morality) is Piaget's first stage of moral development. This stage emerges at about age 5. Behavior is deemed correct when it conforms to authority or rules, and accidental behavior is not excused. Children see rules as absolutes and feel that punishment is inevitable, possibly through immanent justice or automatic retribution.
Autonomous morality is Piaget's second stage of moral development and emerges between ages 9 and 11. Children now view social rules as arbitrary agreements that can be changed and recognize that circumstances can require breaking rules. They now consider the intentions of the wrongdoer.
Piaget believed this state develops as a result of cooperative peer relationships.
How Does Kohlberg View the Development of Moral Reasoning?
1. Kohlberg used moral dilemmas to study moral development in children and from this described three stages.
2. In Kohlberg's first level, the preconventional level (ages 7-10), children in stage 1 focus on obedience and punishment, and those in stage 2 focus on satisfying needs of self and other.
3. In the second level, the conventional level (emerges during middle childhood), children in stage 3 focus on social relationships and the good-boy/good-girl orientation. Children in stage
4 show a law-and-order orientation and are concerned with respect for authority. Many people do not develop beyond this stage.
4. In Kohlberg's last level, the postconventional level (adolescents and adults), individuals in stage 5 focus on contractual, legalistic orientation, and those in stage 6 are concerned with universal ethical principles.
How do Piaget and Kohlberg see the development in moral reasoning in children?
That it followed the same cognitive developmental pattern in all children.
How do children develop selective attention?
1. Memory is defined as the process by which information is sorted and retrieved.
2. Children in middle childhood demonstrate a better ability to focus attention and screen out
distractions than younger children, as evidenced in card-sorting/rule-switching tasks.
3. Sensory memory or the sensory register provides a very short input of a sensation.
What Is Meant by Emotional Intelligence and Social Intelligence?
1. The theory of emotional intelligence proposes that emotional and social skills (understanding and
identifying feelings in self and others) are intelligences, and these skills are associated with positive outcomes.
2. Goleman argues for social intelligence as a way to understand other people.
What Developments Occur in the Storage and Retrieval of Information During Middle Childhood?
1. Many scientists divide memory functioning into three major processes: sensory memory, shortterm
or working memory, and long-term memory.
2. Auditory encoding of visual information and rehearsal can extend the duration of information in
working memory. During middle childhood, the capacity of working memory extends from two to
seven chunks of information. Information can also be rehearsed to keep it active in memory.
(Younger children learn sequences longer than this based on rote learning.)
3. Researchers have shown that having a good teacher has a long-term impact on a child's future learning.
4. There is no known limit of the quantity and duration of information in long-term memory.
Children move information from short-term to long-term memory through rehearsal, elaborative
strategy, and/or semantic coding. Long-term memory is organized by categories.
5. A longitudinal study suggests that children who do not develop basic whole number skills (comprehending what numbers mean and relationships between numbers) before starting school will be at a disadvantage for achievement in math.
6. Development of Recall Memory: Recall improves during middle childhood, often aided by
What Do Children Understand About the Functioning of Their Cognitive Processes and Their Memory?
1. Teaching metacognitive (knowledge and control of one's own cognitive abilities) skills improves children's performance on reading and in other educational domains.
2. Older children are better with metamemory than younger children; they also know more strategies to facilitate memory and are aware that new mental activities can interfere with old
3. Younger children are more suggestible than older children, so leading questions should be avoided when questioning a child witness. Repeated questioning may also increase false reports.
What are the various factors of intelligence?
1. Spearman's factor theory of intelligence proposes that an individual's intelligence is composed of "g" (general intelligence, broad reasoning, and problem solving) and several "s" (specific capacities, individual abilities). Spearman used the concept of factors (a condition that brings a result) and factor analysis to determine which test items measured similar things.
2. Thurstone's factor theory specifies nine factors or primary mental abilities.
What Is Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence?
Consists of analytical intelligence, creative
intelligence, and practical intelligence.
What Is the Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
1. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences posits different domains of intelligence (e.g., bodily kinesthetics, interpersonal, naturalist). Critics feel that these are special talents, and not intelligences.
2. David Wechsler defined intelligence as the ability to understand the world and adapt to it.
How Do We Measure Intellectual Development?
1. Commonly used intelligence tests yield scores called intelligence quotients.
2. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS) is a common assessment used for 2-year-olds to
adults that was first designed for use with French school children. It used to calculate IQ based on chronological age and mental age, but now IQ scores are derived based on age and standardized norms. Average IQ is always 100.
3. The Wechsler Scales (WISC, WPPSI, WAIS) group questions into subtests that measure
different intellectual tasks, some verbal based and some performance based. Thus, patterns of
strengths and weakness can be assessed along with an overall IQ.
How do contemporary theories view intelligence?
As a set of factors. Meaning that people could be more intelligent than others on certain factors but less intelligent than others on other factors.
What does research suggest about intellectual development?
Its not linear and gradual. That there are times of rapid development interspersed with more steady advancement.
When does the first major spurt in intellectual development occur?
Around age 6. It coincides with the child going to school and what Piaget called the shift from preoperational to concrete operational thought.
When is the second major intellectual growth spurt in middle childhood?
10-11 years old; when approaching puberty.
How Do Children Differ in Their Intellectual Development?
1. 95% of children have IQs between 70 and 130; the remaining 5% are labeled either mentally
retarded (below 70) or gifted (above 130).
2. Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning (IQ scores of 70 to 75) and adaptive behavior. Mildly disabled children that constitute 80% of children with intellectual disabilities are often mainstreamed into classrooms and can learn to live independently as adults. Children with moderate intellectual disabilities can learn daily living skills but usually do not acquire academic skills. Severely and profoundly disabled children may rely on others for care throughout their lives.
3. Causes of intellectual disability may be biological (e.g., Down syndrome, brain damage) or
4. Giftedness is the label for children who display outstanding abilities and high performance,
wisdom, intelligence, and creativity.
5. There are documented group differences of IQ scores by ethnicity and social class. This may have to do with stereotypes, parental attributions and ideas about academics, and peer environments.
What Are the Roles of Nature (Heredity) and Nurture (Environmental Influences) In the Development of Intelligence?
1. Kinship and adoption studies have produced heritability estimates for intelligence to be about 45- 60%.
2. Environmental influences also impact IQ. Some studies of these have investigated situational factors that affect IQ testing, the ability to rebound from early deprivation, and the effects of positive early environments.
What Is the Relationship Between Creativity and Intelligence?
1. There is a moderate relationship between intelligence scores and creativity, although creativity is a part of intelligence in some theories (i.e., Sternberg's and Gardner's).
2. Intelligence testing requires convergent thinking whereas creative thinking requires divergent thinking.
What Cognitive Skills Are Involved in Reading?
1. Reading demands perceptual, cognitive, and linguistic processes to integrate visual and
2. Reading to preschool children prepares them for reading.
How Do Children's Vocabulary and Grammar Develop in Middle Childhood?
1. During middle childhood, vocabulary expands and children recognize words with multiple
2. Articulation and complex grammar also improves. Children begin to use tag questions, passive sentences, connectives, and direct object-indirect object constructions.
Methods of Teaching Reading
a. The whole language approach, or word-recognition method, teaches children to associate
visual stimuli with the sound of spoken word and is acquired by rote learning.
b. The phonetic method teaches children to associate letters with the sounds they indicate, and
then to sound out words.
c. There is debate about which method is best to start with, but children need both skills: word
recognition for basic sight vocabulary and the phonetic method for decoding new words.
What Does Research Reveal About the Advantages and Disadvantages of Bilingualism?
1. Most people throughout the world speak two or more languages.
2. Bilingual children have more cognitive flexibility and are often more aware of different cultures than monolinguistic children.
How does Sternberg define creativity?
As " the ability to do things that are novel and useful ."
What constitutes "creative" may differ in the minds of different people, creative children are said to share a number of qualities.
These include: (1) taking chances − doing things differently, (2) refusing to accept limitations, (3) appreciation for music and art, and (4) challenging social norms − being non-conformists.
Creative people may make associations that others do not make and may put elements together in novel ways.
What has been said about the relationship between creativity and intelligence?
Some theorists consider creativity to be a type of intelligence (Sternberg considers it one of 3 types of intelligence). Others suggest that the relationship between the two is modest at best.
Perhaps it is best described by delineating convergent thinking from divergent thinking .
Convergent thinking involves narrowing down the facts to find the best solution to a problem. This would be a necessary ability for traditional intelligence tests.
But creativity involves divergent thinking. This type of thinking involves free association that is not limited to facts.
A creative child appears able to make many associations from a single piece of information while less creative children see things more simply or at least within stricter limits.
What is the heritability of intelligence?
Between 40 and 60 percent.
How many words does the average 6 year old obtain?
What delineates the rule for how words can be combined?
True or False? Don't try the "Yes, but" defense with a 5-year old. If you did it, you're guilty, even if it was an accident.
It is true that you are guilty in the eyes of a 5-year-old even if your behavior was an accident. Preoperational children tend to focus on only one dimension at a time. Therefore, they judge the wrongness of an act only in terms of the amount of damage done, not in terms of the intentions of the wrongdoer.
True or False? Memorizing the alphabet requires that children keep 26 chunks of information in mind at once.
Children usually learn the alphabet by rote learning - simple associative learning based on repetition. After many repetitions, one letter triggers the next.
True or False? An IQ is a score on a test.
TRUE. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Scales yield scores called intelligence quotients (IQs).
True or False? Two children can answer exactly the same items on an intelligence test correctly, yet one can be above average in intelligence and the other below average.
TRUE. The younger of the two children is considered to be more intelligent in this example.
True or False? Highly intelligent children are creative.
FALSE. With the exception of Sternberg's model (which includes creative intelligence), it is not necessarily true that highly intelligent children are creative.
True or False? Adopted children are more similar in intelligence to their adopted parents than to their biological parents.
FALSE. Adopted children are more similar in intelligence to their biological parents, which is suggestive of the role of genetic factors in intellectual functioning.
True or False? Bilingual children encounter more academic problems than children who speak only one language.
FALSE. Although this was a theory years ago, it is actually false.
-Found in 1970 at 13
-Had no bowel/bladder control, could not stand in erect posture, severely malnourished, unable to chew solid food and was mute; could not speak or understand language.
-Allowed psychologists to test critical period theory.
-Initially she'd only speak one or two words at a time, and progressed to a point. Eventually progressed to the degree of combining 2-3 words into phrases, but never beyond the level of a 3 or 4 year old child. She could never progress from simple to grammatically correct sentences.
-Findings supported the hypothesis that there is a critical period for language and that the period falls between 2 and puberty. If missed, it results in failure to attain complete facility for language.
-At age 24, she remained at a language capacity of a 5 year old.
Human children raised by animals; children surviving in the wilderness; children raised in isolated confinement; or children raised in confinement with little human contact.
In many cases feral children are quadruped and in most cases they lack speech. Hence, the challenge of restoring some aspects of behavior (e.g., walking upright, not eating from the floor) compound the normal challenges of learning (e.g., speech training, interpersonal skills training).
Issues Involved in IQ Testing in Schools
- IQ tests do not measure all the facets of a child's functioning that may be relevant. If we only use the IQ score, some retarded children would be incorrectly placed in special classes.
- There is the problem of the self-fulfilling prophecy of an IQ score. Once a child is labelled as "having" a particular IQ, that label tends to be difficult to remove later.
- Tests are biased such that some groups of children are more likely to score high or low, even though their underlying ability is the same. For example, the tests may contain items that are not equally accessible to all cultural groups.
Despite all the problems with IQ test scores, they do predict academic success in school and educational success is essential if the child is to acquire the basic skills needed to cope with the complexities of life.
Many developmentalists have concluded that IQ tests are more reliable and valid than other alternatives such as teacher rating scales. Most caution against using a single IQ test as the sole basis for a placement decision, especially in the early elementary grades when IQ test scores are not as reliable as they are later in childhood and in adolescence.
Cognitive Advancement Between 6-12
Children during this age range are in what Piaget calls the concrete operational stage of cognitive development - concrete because thinking is cut and dry.
During this stage the child will be acquiring and utilizing some complex operations such as multiplication and problem-solving strategies.
Piaget stressed the importance of reversibility. This idea, that physical and mental operations can be reversed, is clearly involved in many of the other operations the child is learning to utilize. Mathematical division or subtraction, for example, would not be possible without an understanding of how to reverse operations.
At the same time there is an increase in their ability to take another person's perspective.
Cognitive Development and the Link to Problem-Solving
Children during 6-12 begin to anticipate certain outcomes before actually engaging in an action. This depends on their ability to think about the future outcome of an action, reverse their thinking, and try another tactic instead.
They are becoming astute observers and can consider and understand cause-effect relationships. The skills of observation and making cause-effect connections are critical for the child's developing problem-solving ability.
The child who can take the perspective of someone else is able to anticipate how that person might respond to a certain situation. This allows the child to adjust behaviours to the other and increase the likelihood of being situationally successful.
Practice and experience seem to be essential for these developing skills. Children who have not had a lot of experience interacting with others, solving problems, or taking the perspective of others may have some significant transition problems into school.
Children playing together can model these developing skills for each other. The role-playing and turn-taking games that children play are enhancing their negotiating skills, teaching them to wait their turn, and illustrating for them that the needs and wants of others are important.
These situations all enhance the child's ability to reverse her thinking, be sensitive to the needs and feelings of others, and allow the child to find answers to some of her own questions.
What are the skills involved in learning to read and write?
Especially significant is phonological awareness. During elementary school years, phonological awareness skills continue to increase. Children who lack such expertise at the start of school are likely to fall behind unless some systematic effort is made by teachers to provide them with a base of phonological knowledge. All beginning readers seem to benefit from specific instruction in sound-letter correspondence.
It appears that beginning readers gain a significant advantage when they achieve automaticity with respect to identifying sound-symbol connections. They need plenty of opportunities to practice translating written language into spoken words. Reading experts suggest that oral reading is critical to success in the early years.
Once children have learned the basic reading process, learning about meaningful word parts helps them become more efficient readers and to better understand what they read.
Comprehension strategies, such as identifying the purpose of a particular text, also help children become better readers.
All along the way, children need to be exposed to good literature, both in their own reading and through being read to by teachers and parents.
Some of the strategies used to teach reading also help children learn to write, the other component of literacy. Instruction in sound-symbol connections helps children learn to spell as well as to read. Good writing also involves instruction and practice.
Children need to learn about writing techniques such as outlining and paragraph development to become good writers. They also need to learn about language mechanics, such as grammar and appropriate uses of words, as well as how to edit their own and others' written work.
What is important for children who are poor readers when it comes to their education?
They have problems with sound-letter combinations. Many children who have reading difficulties benefit from highly specific phonics approaches that provide a great deal of practice in translating letters into sounds and vice versa.
Curriculum flexibility is also important in programs for poor readers. Programs that combine sound-letter and comprehension training have proven to be highly successful in helping poor readers catch up, especially when they are implemented in the early elementary years.
Teachers need to be able to assess the effectiveness of whatever approach they are using and change it to fit the needs of individual students.
School psychologists are mental health professionals whose primary role is to ensure that all children receive an adequate education regardless of ability or disability.
As a part of their graduate program, school psychologists are trained to give individual IQ tests to help in understanding a child's strengths and weaknesses in learning and to help identify what educational strategies might be effective.
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