Chapter 12 - Cognitive Development

Terms in this set (174)

Especially significant is phonological awareness. During elementary school years, phonological awareness skills continue to increase. Children who lack such expertise at the start of school are likely to fall behind unless some systematic effort is made by teachers to provide them with a base of phonological knowledge. All beginning readers seem to benefit from specific instruction in sound-letter correspondence.

It appears that beginning readers gain a significant advantage when they achieve automaticity with respect to identifying sound-symbol connections. They need plenty of opportunities to practice translating written language into spoken words. Reading experts suggest that oral reading is critical to success in the early years.

Once children have learned the basic reading process, learning about meaningful word parts helps them become more efficient readers and to better understand what they read.

Comprehension strategies, such as identifying the purpose of a particular text, also help children become better readers.

All along the way, children need to be exposed to good literature, both in their own reading and through being read to by teachers and parents.

Some of the strategies used to teach reading also help children learn to write, the other component of literacy. Instruction in sound-symbol connections helps children learn to spell as well as to read. Good writing also involves instruction and practice.

Children need to learn about writing techniques such as outlining and paragraph development to become good writers. They also need to learn about language mechanics, such as grammar and appropriate uses of words, as well as how to edit their own and others' written work.