29 terms

Africa - 20th & 21st Century History SS7H1

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European powers
they became familiar with Africa's wealth of natural resources
Scramble for Africa
European countries rushing to take control of African territories; competition for African land
Berlin Conference
In 1884, 14 European countries met here to establish ground rules for trade and territorial claims in Africa
Ethiopia and Liberia
countries not under European control after the Berlin Conference 2 decades later
United Kingdom and France
countries that controlled the most colonial territory in Africa
European actions
had no respect for existing African boundaries and cultures; split many African cultures into different countries; combined different languages into same country
protested, rebelled
unhappy Africans did this when European governments showed little regard for their wishes
nationalism
sense of pride in one's country and a desire to control it
heritage
something a person possesses because of his/her natural situation or birth
Pan Africa Congress
in 1900 this pushed the cause of nationalism forward & motivated Kenya, Nigeria, & South Africa fight for independence
pay high taxes
Under British rule, Kenya _________ and did not enjoy the same access to new jobs as whites did.
Mau Mau
Kenyan group of rebel fighters that attacked British authorities because of discrimination and inequality
Mau Mau
many of these fighters were killed or put into detention camps by the British
Kenya
this country was granted independence in 1963 from British rule
Nigeria
this country gained independence from Great Britain in 1960
peaceful protests
Nigerians had mostly ____ against the British.
military takeovers, civil war
Nigeria has suffered this after its independence because of ethnic tensions in the culture.
segregated
set apart from other groups or facilities based on someone's race
apartheid
a policy of segregation, and political and economic discrimination, against non-European groups
Dutch
group that first colonized South Africa in the late 1600s
passbooks
official documents carried by black South Africans that allowed them to enter restricted areas reserved for whites
effects of apartheid
blacks were moved from homes, few rights in government, frequent discrimination, unfair trials, imprisonment
Nelson Mandela
South African leader (ANC) who defended the poor charged with breaking apartheid laws
ANC (African National Congress)
political party working to end racial segregation
restricted trade
The U.S. & U.K did this to focus international attention on the South African apartheid government
boycott
to organized people not to deal with, or buy products from a country, organization, or person
F.W. de Klerk
president of South Africa (1989); believed apartheid was hurting South Africa's economy; released Mandela from prison (1990)
new constitution
Mandela and de Klerk wrote ____ for South Africa
free election
in 1994 South Africa held this, in which Mandela became the first black person to hold the office