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TExES ESL Supplemental (154)
Terms in this set (85)
Causes for low parent attendance rate at Annual Review and Dismissal Committee meetings from African-American, Hispanic and Native American families are . . .
(1) Culturally diverse families are passively, rather than actively involved in educational planning at the school level, (2) Possible limited English speaking skills, (3) Parents from culturally diverse backgrounds often feel intimidated by the educational system
LPAC Representative's Role at an ARD is . . .
Assisting with decisions regarding the selection of assessments and appropriate accommodations for LEP students who receive special education services
LPAC Representatives do not do ___________________ at ARD meetings.
(1) Interpret results of speech and language assessments, (2) identify speech impairments, (3) supervise provision of specially designed instruction for the student, (4) coordinate transition of extended year services
What does LPAC stand for?
Language Proficiecy Assessment Committee
Which act created the LPAC?
Texas Bilingual Education Act
What are the 7 responsibilities of an LPAC?
(1) Identification or Home Language Survey, (2) assessment and documentation review, (3) Placement, (4) methods of instruction/ instructional levels, (5) Coordination, (6) Parental notification/ consent, (7) annual review
LPAC identification requires . . .
Home language survey
LPAC placement requires
A recommendation and parental permission
Methods of instruction or instructional levels decisions impact what?
The instruction students receive
Communication among all teachers to support students placed in their programs
LPAC Annual Review includes
linguistic and academic progress
True or False: Parental persmission is required for further testing language proficiency of a student.
At what stage of ESL screening is the LPAC required to notify the parent about classification and obtain permission in writing for program entry?
The placement stage
Who might a teacher consider inviting to a parent - teacher conference for an ESL student?
Where should a student be placed pending parent approval?
In the recommended program. Parent approval will keep the student in the program; parent denial will cause the student to be removed from the program.
Before reading in English, what do ELLS need?
early, explicit and intensive instruction in phonological awareness
When learners understand the message in the target language
Applies to understanding ideas which are not directly stated but are implied in a passage of text
Applies to analyzing reading selections and form conclusions about the information
Process of Transfer
To take what students already know and understand about literacy in their native language and use this knowledge to help them gain literacy skills in the target language
Which skill would be most appropriate to introduce first to a group of ELLs just starting to read in English?
Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction
(1) Phonemic awareness, (2) Phonics, (3) Vocabulary developments, (4) reading fluency, (5) Reading Comprehension strategies
understanding the spoken words and syllables are themselves made up of sequences of elementary speech sounds
Abilities included for support for phonemic awareness (8)
(1) attend to separate words of sentence, (2) break up words into syllables, (3) detect and generate rhymes, (4) engage in alliterative language activity, (5) blend phonemes to make words, (6) make new words by substituting one phoneme for another, (7) identify the middle and final phonemes of words, and (8) segment words into phonemes
Alliterative Language Activity
listening for or generating words that begin with the a specific initial phoneme
comparing the sound/ print relationship of words
When working with ELLs at the earliest stage the teacher should always try to . . .
contextualize reading experience as much as possible
What are some examples of contextualize reading experience
(a) make labels for familiar class objects, (b) use students' own words to create sentence strips
What is the most powerful determinant of the likelihood of failure to learn to read?
Lack of phonetic awareness
What strategies are used to improve comprehension?
self-correcting, questioning, predicting, reviewing and reading ahead
Ways to promote reading comprehension
(1) Ask students to reflect on author's purpose and own background knowledge of content, (2) encourage questions and discussions about words and key concepts from the text, (3) teach necessary content specific words prior to reading text
Have uncommon phoneme-grapheme relationship and/or spellings and cannot be sounded out
How long are students with parent denials monitored?
How long after a student has exited an ESL program are they monitored?
Is an annual review held for students who have met exit criteria?
When words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria. Students must then insert the words a they read to compete and construct meaning from the text.
What are the purposes of the Cloze technique? (5)
(1) to identify students' knowledge and understanding of the reading process, (2) to determine which cueing systems readers effectively employ to construct meaning from print, (3) to assess the extent of students' vocabularies and knowledge of a subject, (4) to encourage students to monitor for meaning while reading, (5) to encourage students to think critically and analytically about text and content
Assessment of reading errors to determine the strengths and weaknesses of students' decoding ability and word analysis skills
Focuses on SOUNDS in spoken language; AUDITORY and involves no print
Before ESL students can make connections between letter and sound what must they have?
Phonology of L2
matching the sound of letters to printed symbols for those letters
Preposition Keywords include:
of, anything you can fill in the blank: I ran __________ the dog.
To + Verb = infinitive, an infinitive phrase by itself cannot be a sentence
"to watch in horror", "to dance with wolves", etc.
has subject and verb, but cannot stand alone because it does not provide a complete thought
What is the primary focus of content-area instruction delivered to ELLs in an ESL class?
Simultaneous development of second-language skills and content-area knowledge
What is the framework for structured immersion for teaching English to ELLs?
Students are taught all subjects in a simplified form of English, while the teacher tries to adjust to their level of proficiency. They are provided little or no support in native language. Academic content plays a supporting, but subordinate, role.
Sheltered English - What is the framework?
Students are taught content-rich, high-standards curriculum with critical thinking skills. Subject matter and language development are integrated to improve students' cognitive academic language proficiency.
Pull-out ESL - What is the framework?
Students are taught content and language arts in English adapted to the students' proficiency level and supplemented by gesture and visual aids. Students may be grouped with all ages and grade levels and meet away from their English-only classroom to sped part of their day receiving ESL instruction.
Two-Way Dual Language Program - What is the framework?
Students are taught in an environment that integrates language majority and language minority populations. There is an increase emphasis on cooperative learning, experiential discovery-based approaches, integrated language arts, and interdisciplinary thematic teaching.
Operates on the assumption that new LEP newcomer students need a period of adjustment no only to education system but also to social environment of this country.
safe education atmosphere, promotes rapid language learning
Self-Contained ESL Program
Calls for intensive and extensive instruction in reading, writing and listening to and speaking English. Students are adjusted to education system and social environment of this country, already feel connection to culture.
Dual Language Immersion
Serves native and non-native speakers in an instructional setting where both groups learn from each other in a peer teaching situation, in a challenging curriculum. Students in the program are bilingual, biliterate and bicultural enough to participate in this program, therefore they do not need special classes.
Lau v. Nichols - Year
Lau v. Nichols
Students did not understand English could not participate meaningfully in nor benefit from an educational program provided in English. By merely making available the same access to facilities, textbooks, teachers, curriculum and instruction to these students as provided to English dominant students, the court found it did not constitute equality of treatment when instruction was presented only in English and no other mediation was provided to students of limited English proficiency
Castaneda v. Pickard - year
Castaneda v. Pickard
Implementation of bilingual education programs must be based on sound research, with adequate resources and opportunities for students to have access to full curriculum
US v the State of Texas - year
1981 and 1982
US v. the State of Texas
the State had failed to help ELLs overcome language barriers under the Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA).
* ruling reversed a year later
Senate Bill 477
the current Billingual Education Law
What was the outcome of the US v. State of Texas in Texas
Senate Bill 477
Plyler v. Doe - year
Plyler v. Doe
Supreme court struck down a state statute denying funding for education to illegal aliens and simultaneously struck down a municipal school district's attempt to charge illegal immigrants an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each illegal alien student to compensate for the lost state funding.
Guaranteed rights of undocumented immigrants to free public education.
Lau v. Nicholas can be associate with which other US act?
Civil rights act of 1964
Low Affective Filters
If a learner has low anxiety, high motivation, or high self-confidence
High Affective Filters
Students have high anxiety, lower motivation, or lower self-esteem, the affective filter will be higher and does not provide the learner with as many "subconscious language acquisition"
Proving comprehensible input and lowering affective filters help what ?
Develop listening and speaking skills
How wee organize our behaviors, communication, vaules and emotions; the patterns of interaction, communication, socialization and education held in common by a particular group of people
The process of adapatiation to a new cultural environment, occurs when we move into a new cultural, social, linguistic environment
Written Conversation in which a student and teacher communicate regularly
Total Physical Response
Greatly multiply the amount of language input that can be handled by beginning English language Learners; instructors give commands to students in target language and students respond with whole body actions
Language Experience Approach
Promotes reading and writing through the use of personal experiences and oral language
those that are specific to the individual, including learning styles and strategies, attitude, motivation and personality
Situational or Environmental Factors
Have to do with issues external to the student, the class and school setting including the particular teaching style, openness to the resources and multicultural viewpoints students bring the the classroom, cultural connection from the home to the school, sense of identity in the classroom, stage in acculturation, expectations of students, and the quality and extent of exposure to English
Prior Language Development and Competence
key in determining how well a student acquires English as a second language
The ability to read and write at the level necessary to participate effectively in society
It takes most students 5 to 7 years to develop what level of the Target Language?
Language students speak to socialize
Improves Spelling and Vocabulary
the Explicit understanding of a word's sound structure
The meaning of words, phrases and sentences
Study of language use; involves taking context into account, beyond semantics
Maintain that communicative situation motivates, constrains or otherwise determines grammatical structure
Knowledge of language arises out of language use and is intimately tied to more general learning strategies
Language is considered a communicative behavior that develops through interaction with other human beings; suggests language development occurs largely as a result of behavioral reinforcement in a child's environment
Language acquisition occurs largely as a result of an innate biological process; all human beings have an innate ability to acquire language
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