Terms in this set (19)
an argument is rebutted by attacking the character, motive, etc., of the person making the argument
appealing to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation
begging the question
treating an opinion as if it were a plain truth, where the conclusion is assumed in one of the premises
tendency to lay down principles as totally true without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others
when only two choices are presented yet more exist, or a spectrum of possible choices exists between two extremes.
key term or phrase in an argument is used in an ambiguous way, with one meaning in one part of the argument and then another meaning in another portion of the argument.
the ethical appeal, means to convince an audience of the author's credibility or character
assuming that because two things are alike in one respect, they are necessarily alike in other respects
assuming that because one event happens after another, the first must have caused the second.
drawing a conclusion based on a small sample size rather than statistics more in line with the typical situation
appeal to logic; to convince an audience by use of logic or reason
when the conclusion does not follow from the premises
overly sentimental appeal
distracting the audience by striking emotions in a heartwarming or gut-wrenching manner to distract from facts that prove the argument is invalid
the emotional appeal, means to persuade an audience by appealing to their emotions
attempting to redirect the argument to another issue to which the person doing the redirecting can better respond
When fear, not based on evidence or reason, is being used as the primary motivator to get others to accept an idea, proposition, or conclusion.
when a relatively insignificant first event is suggested to lead to a more significant event, which in turn leads to a more significant event, and so on
stacking the deck
any evidence that supports an opposing argument is simply rejected or ignored
substituting a person's actual position or argument with a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version of the position of the argument