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an abnormality involving a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number (one chromosome set is incomplete)

Barr body

an inactive X chromosome

crossing over

the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis


removes a chromosomal segment

down syndrome

aneuploid condition named trisomy 21


repeats a segment

genetic map

a genetic map of chromosomes based on recombination frequencies

genetic recombination

the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents


reverses a segment

linked genes

genes on the same chromosome, with likelyness to be inherited together

map units

distance between genes

mutant phenotype

alternative, or more uncommon phenotypes


pairs of homologous chromosomes do not separate normally during meiosis

parental types

offspring with a matching phenotype to a parent


when a chromosome has multiple sets of chromosomes

recombinant types

a new combination of traits differing from the parents

sex-linked gene

a gene that is located on a sex chromosome


moves a segment from one chromosome to another

wild type

normal phenotypes commonly expressed

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