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APUSH Semester 1 PEEPS - C.Podlin
Terms in this set (121)
The Virginia Company
DEF: A pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I on April 10, 1606. Their purpose was to establish settlements on the coast of North America. (Especially settle Virginia)
SIG: They were the first to send people over to settle English colonies in North America.
DEF: 50 acre grants of land that could be acquired by new settlers. Those who already lived in the country received 100 acres
SIG: This was an effort created by the Virginia Company to try and recruit new settlers to their colony
House of Burgesses
DEF: The first elected legislature in what was to become the United States (Virginia colony)
SIG: Although a small step, it's a step towards a representative democracy where citizens get to vote for an official. Also, a step towards independence since the house wasn't an English controlled council.
DEF: A worker who is under contract to an employer for a fixed amount of time (usually 3-7years), in return for passage to America, shelter, food, etc.
SIG: Before slaves, these were the main work forces to work agriculture in the English colonies.
DEF: Protestants that wished to "purify" the Church of England
SIG: Many migrated to the English colonies in search of religious tolerance, and create their own settlements. (Plymouth colony)
DEF: Puritan radicals that wished to completely break away from the Church of England.
SIG: They were a major group of colonists that went to the New World due to their religion and persecution from England.
DEF: A document signed by 41 males on the Mayflower, which established a civil government and proclaimed their allegiance to the king.
SIG: First constitution created in the colonies that created a civil government
The Great Migration
DEF: Between the 1620s and 1640s there was a massive migration of Puritans to the New England colonies (especially Massachusetts)
SIG: A large amount of Puritans settled in the English colonies to seek religious tolerance. This created new, and expanded old, New England colonies.
DEF: AKA the Society of Friends, they were a group of Puritans based on the preachings of George Fox, and Margaret Fell. Fox urged them to "tremble at the name of the Lord" (quakers), and believed in "inner light" to guide them to righteousness.
SIG: Some migrated to North Carolina, but some created their own colony under William Penn in Pennsylvania.
DEF: Laws passed by the English to regulate colonial trade based on mercantilism principles.
SIG: They kept Dutch ships out of the English colonies, and created an important shipping industry in New England and boosted its economy
King Phillip's War
DEF: In 1675, the Wampanoags, under the leadership of Metacomet (AKA King Philip by the English) rose up to resist the English.
SIG: This showed the conflicts between the English and Indian, which eventually resulted in all out war in this instance.
DEF: Nathaniel Bacon led an army to take over Jamestown, and try to control the colony due to unfavorable policies created by William Berkeley towards the attacking Indians.
SIG: It showed the conflict over Indian and English borders, the poor relationships between the two groups, the bitterness between eastern and western landowners, and the potential instability of the colony's large population of free, landless men.
Seven Year's War
DEF: (AKA French and Indian War) A war between 1754-1763 fought between the British and the alliance of the French and Indians.
SIG: It was essentially a fight over the control of North America
The Middle Passage
DEF: The trade route between Africa and the Americas that was mainly used to trade slaves from Africa for European and American goods.
SIG: It completed the triangular trade, and started the massive trade of Africans to the Americas.
DEF: Laws that limited the rights of blacks, and ensured almost all authority to white masters.
SIG: They made sure those of color were on the bottom of the social hierarchy, and started inequality towards blacks in America.
Toleration Act, 1689
DEF: England allowed freedom of worship to nonconformists (except for Catholics) if they pledged allegiance to allegiance.
SIG: England Parliament finally passed an act that allowed for religious tolerance. Fewer sought religious asylum in the Americas.
DEF: It was set up by the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was a church system in which each local church served as the center of its own community.
SIG: This contrasted to England, where the single state church controlled all of the local ones.
Albany Plan of Union
DEF: Created by Ben Franklin in 1754, this plan called for the British colonies to come together under one central government (failed).
SIG: First attempt to unify all the colonies.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
DEF: This is the treaty that ended the French and Indian War in 1763
SIG: This ended the war, and the main cause for all the British revenue raising acts the would ultimately cause American unrest.
Proclamation of 1763
DEF: An attempt to prevent the colonists from going west past the Appalachian Mountains.(set up a line the colonists shouldn't cross)
SIG: A huge event that would cause the colonists social unrest and eventually cause them to revolt.
DEF:A rebellion led by chieftain Pontiac against ceding land to the British and the colonists.
SIG: It showed the poor relationships and struggle between the westward expanding colonists and the Natives trying to protect their land.
DEF: A group of men from western Pennsylvania who demanded relief from colonial taxes and money to help protect themselves against the Indians.
SIG: It shows that the westerners were feeling underrepresented.
Quebec Act, 1764
DEF: Provided a civil government for the French-speaking Roman Catholic citizens of Canada and the Illinois area.
SIG: Colonists believed it was unfair that the French were given their own land and government. (representation)
DEF: The convention created to revise the Articles of Confederation.
SIG: This was the first drafting of the constitution, the first steps to fix the problems facing the country, and the creation of a federalist government.
DEF: British Parliament were able to declare authority in all cases in the colonies.
SIG: State run courts were left powerless, however mostly colonists were so happy about the Stamp Act being repealed that they didn't even notice this act had passed.
DEF: Written by Thomas Paine, it was a pamphlet that called for an end to British rule (American Independence)
SIG: Sparked the idea for a revolution, and created social support for independence.
Declaration of Independence
DEF: The official document declaring American independence from Britain.
SIG: Even though the war already started in Lexington and Concord, this was the great milestone for American independence.
Articles of Confederation
DEF: The loosely centralized government drafted in 1777 that gave the power to the states.
SIG: This government was not able to deal with the post-war problems like massive debt, and events such as Shay's Rebellion created the fear of mobocracy. (need for Constitution)
DEF: Citizens of the colonies that were still loyal to Great Britain
SIG: Many fled after/during the war leaving behind large estates resulting in new opportunities for patriots to acquire land and influence. Also, they were humiliated or even killed by colonists.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
DEF: Created the Northwest Territory, organized its governing structure, and established the procedures by which territories were admitted as states to the Union.
SIG: Resulted in the creation of new states later on and anybody born in the region could not be a slave
DEF:A rebellion led by Revolutionary war veteran Daniel Shays based primarily on the demands of paper money and tax relief for poor western farmers.
SIG: This sparked the urgency to revise the Articles of Confederation for they were too weak, and the fear of mobocracy.
The Federalist Papers
DEF: A series of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay explaining the meaning and virtues of the Constitution.
SIG: These countered the arguments against the Constitution made by the anti-federalists.
Judiciary Act of 1789
DEF: Established a court system in America, (supreme court and several smaller courts).
SIG: This ultimately created the third branch of the government.
Bank of the United States
DEF: Created by Alexander Hamilton, it established the National bank of the US.
SIG: This issued a national currency, allowed for the country to receive credit from foreign countries, and helped start a divide between Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans.
Neutrality Act of 1793
DEF: Declared America neurtal in any war in Europe.
SIG: Led to France sending diplomatic representatives to make the US side with France, and led to the end of the Franco-American Alliance. Also allowed for Jay's Treaty and Pickney's Treaty.
Indian Intercourse Act
DEF: Stated that the government had the right to trade with Indians.
SIG: Ultimately led to the shrinkage of Indian lands in the west due to expansion.
DEF: A treaty easing the tensions between America and Britain in 1794.
SIG: Ended possibilities of war with Britain, but the treaty gained large amounts of negativity in America.
DEF: France tried to blackmail America and demanded money.
SIG: Led to the Quasi War with France and ultimately ended the Franco-American Alliance as well as giving John Adams support from the colonists.
Alien and Sedition Acts
DEF: The Alien Act placed new obstacles on incoming migrants and forced some out of the country, while the Sedition Acts stated that nothing bad could be said about the Government.
SIG: This depleted all the popularity gained by John Adams during the XYZ Affair and helped with the downfall of the Federalists from government.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
DEF: These states had the right to nullify unconstitutional laws.
SIG: These resolutions didn't succeed but it elevated the dispute with the Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans, and acted as a counter to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
DEF: Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from the French for $15 million.
SIG: Expanded the western frontier, and allowed the president to purchase land through a signed treaty.
Judiciary Act, 1801
DEF: AKA "Midnight Judges" was created by Adams the night of his last day in office. It appointed federalist judges positions in certain courts (Marbury).
SIG: Cause of the Marbury vs. Madison trial, and was a last ditch effort for the Federalists to control the Judiciary branch of the government.
Marbury v. Madison
DEF: Supreme court case between the "midnight judge" Marbury, and Madison. Madison challenged the constitutionality of the Judiciary Act of 1801 by removing Marbury from his state judge position.
SIG: Overturns Judiciary Act of 1801, and established that the supreme court has authority over the state laws (judicial review).
DEF: The American ship, Chesapeake, was attacked and sunk by the British Leopard (who took the crew members captive).
SIG: Major cause of the Embargo Act, showed growing British impressment, and showed the lack of recognition of the US as an independent country.
Embargo Act, 1807
DEF: Prohibited American ships from leaving the US for any foreign ports around the world.
SIG: Result of tensions between British and US. Caused the US to rely on domestic goods/agriculture, created smuggling, resulted in the Non-Intercourse Acts and Macon's Bill No.2.
DEF: Federalists wrote up a list of grievances against the Constitution and threatened succession from the US.
SIG: Federalists' downfall of power.
DEF: An economic plan created by Henry Clay that called for a 2nd BUS, a protective tariff, and federally funded internal improvements.
SIG: All ideas but internal improvements passed. It helped pay off debt and boost economy. Caused Americans to rely on domestic goods and manufacturing.
Tariff of 1816
DEF: A protective tariff that raised the prices of British goods that were often cheaper and of higher quality.
SIG: Helped American industry and allowed the US to boost its manufacturing.
DEF: Between British and Americans, it was a large disarmment of the navy and forts along the Great Lakes.
SIG: Allowed for British and American access to trade on the Great Lakes, and set the basis as a demilitarized boundary between Canada and the US.
DEF: Between Spain and America, US got Florida, and Spain got land in the Texas/Mexico area.
SIG: Expanded American territory and proved America as a dominating North American country.
DEF: Was part of Monroe's State on Union Address in 1823, written by Quincy Adams, and basically told European powers to stay out of the Americas.
SIG: Independent Latin American countries were recognized by the US, and it establish American isolationism.
Panic of 1819
DEF: A few year depression which included widespread closures on the frontier, failure of wild cat banks, and tightening of the Bank of the US's money.
SIG: The BUS took the blame, caused Monroe to fund internal improvements, and it called for a reliance on the American System.
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)
DEF: Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, but to insure the balance of free and slave states, Maine was also allowed to join the Union.
SIG: Rising sectionalism and conflicts over slavery.
DEF: Representative Tallmadge proposed a bill for Missouri's acceptance into the Union. Which would've offset the balance between freed and slaves. Those slaves older than 25 were set free. Passed by House, but rejected by Senate.
SIG: Still held off the issue of slavery and sectionalism.
McCulloch v. Maryland
DEF: States tried to uphold the unconstitutionality of the BUS and tried to acquire power to tax the BUS.
SIG: BUS is necessary and proper. Also, that states couldn't tax the BUS.
Dartmouth v. Woodward
DEF: Woodward was trying to turn Dartmouth college from a private to a state university by challenging the legality of a contract.
SIG: Restricted states' power to control corporation by stating that contracts are binding documents and can't be broken at will.
Gibbons v. Ogden
DEF: Ogden tried to sue Gibbons because Congress gave Gibbons a license that superseded NY's power to grant Ogden a ferry monopoly.
SIG: Promoted free individual competitions and ended states' power to grant and regulate monopolies.
DEF: A system Jackson administered to help make the right of elected officials to appoint their own followers to public office; there was also a rotation of positions.
SIG: Jackson dismissed up to 1/5 of the federal office holders that had been in office for too long and weren't doing anything to abuse their power.
DEF: A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who influenced him and helped him make decisions instead of the formal cabinet.
SIG: Since Jackson surrounded himself with people from his party his ideas were normally based off of Democratic views, and this allowed him to choose his successor.
Maysville Road Bill
DEF: Jackson vetoed the construction of a road in Kentucky because he viewed it as unconstitutional due to the fact it only was going to run through the state of Kentucky
SIG: Jackson stuck to his stingy views on internal improvements.
DEF: During the presidential election in 1824 Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
SIG: The outrage the Jacksonians expressed haunted Adams throughout his presidency, and most of the Jacksonians in congress blocked most of the programs he proposed.
DEF: A newly formed political party that was anti-Jackson, and believed in expanding the power of the federal gov., encouraging industrial and commercial development, and knitting the country together into a consolidated economic system.
SIG: They created the 2nd American Party system, and they were popular with the upper class in the South, merchants in the North and ambitious farmers in the West.
Tariff of 1833
DEF: Henry Clay and Calhoun devised a compromise stating that the tariff would be slowly lowered so that by 1842 it would be about the same level that it was in 1816.
SIG: It helped to resolve the Nullification Crisis and made it clear that no state could defy the federal government alone.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
DEF: Written by John C. Calhoun, it said that the 1828 Tariff was unconstitutional and that the states should nullify it and threaten secession.
SIG: This caused the Nullification Crisis and caused the federal governments and state governments in the South to have tension.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831
DEF: The Cherokee Nation tried to stop the white from pushing them West by appealing to the supreme court ; the Cherokee won.
SIG: Counter to the Indian Removal Act, and ended up with Jackson forcing them out in the Trails of Tears.
Indian Removal Act, 1831
DEF: Appropriated money to finance federal negotiations with the southern tribes aimed at relocating them to the West.
SIG: Worked on most tribes except the Cherokee, who resisted by winning an appeal to the Supreme Court.
DEF: The president of the B.U.S from 1823 on, and did a lot to put the bank on a sound and prosperous basis.
SIG: Eventually became a main opposer to Jackson, who was determined to destroy the bank.
Panic of 1837
DEF: A recession where banks and buisnesses failed, unemployment grew, overspeculation, and state government cesed to pay interest on their bonds.
SIG: It was the worst depression in American history, and it destroyed Van Buren's presidency.
Second "Great Awakening
DEF: Started by Charles G. Finney, it was a widespread movement for religious revival in US.
SIG: Started a chain event for many other reform movements and increased sectional religious groups of the church.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
DEF: A free black slave that formed a group of slaves to kill a large amount of whites.
SIG: Fear of slave revolts, and increased tensions between slaves and whites.
DEF: Main founder Ralph Waldo Emerson, believed on individuals to transcend their intellect and become one with their environment.
SIG: Increased individualism and formed many reform groups based off of this idea.
DEF: Transcendentalist utopian society, founded by George Ripley, where all people worked equally off the land and everyone got an equal share of all that was grown.
SIG: 1st utopian society and tried to set an example for the "perfect" society, but in the end crumbled .
Commonwealth v. Hunt
DEF: Supreme court case that disputed the issue of strikes and the establishment of unions in the work force.
SIG: Ruled that strikes could be used as a legal weapon, and unions were lawful organizations.
DEF: Founded by John Humphrey Noyes, it was a group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York, and practiced polygamy and sharing of property.
SIG: It was a radically new way of viewing marriage and was also the first area where men and women were equal.
Hudson River School
DEF: A group of artists that painted the Hudson river valley as an overall image of America.
SIG: Created an American image/culture and depicted America as very beautiful.
DEF: Laws in each state which defined the status and regulations of slaves
SIG: The north and south were butting heads over slavery. So to keep the north happy the south kept loosening the slave codes while still being able to have slaves.
American Colonization Society
DEF: Organization of Northerners and people from the border states who supported the gradual emancipation of slaves and eventually create a freed slave colony in Africa, called Liberia.
SIG: Showed the North's abolitionist view on slavery, but also how they wanted to get rid of the blacks. (rising tensions)
DEF: First series of textbooks used in American schools.
SIG: It was part of the rise of public education in the states.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
DEF: Non Quaker, and was skeptic to the women rights movement. She spoke at the Seneca falls convention.
SIG: This created a divide with women about the women's rights movement. Showed that not all the women had the exact same views.
Seneca Falls Convention
DEF: Women's rights convention in Seneca falls,new York .
SIG: Women spoke to masses and this was unusual because women were usually not allowed to speak in public. The main women speakers were Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Wrote Declaration of Sentiments.
DEF: Abolitionist newspaper founded by William Lloyd garrison in 1831. It talked about immediate non compensational emancipation.
SIG:It was a sign of how slavery was growing as an issue between the north and south and really brought the issue to surface. (extreme view towards abolition.)
Know-Nothings (American Party)
DEF: Nativist party that was against immigration, wanted Catholics out of office, more restrictive naturalization laws , and literacy test for voting.
SIG: Created a new political organization that was pro nativism. They held control of the Massachusettes government but couldn't get support of West and died out in 1854 .
DEF: System that improved women's working conditions in the factories.
SIG: It created better working conditions for women working in the factories especially young unmaried women. This caused women to not get married and go right to working in the factories which was against the women's views of that time.
American System of Manufacturers
DEF: A set of manufacturing methods that included interchangeable parts and use of mechanization.
SIG: More efficient use of labor with machines and created a new range of jobs, which led to the rise of the middle class. The interchangeable parts also lead to the machines not having to be completely replaced when only 1 part was broken.
Alexis de Tocqueville
DEF: A French politician and historian that wrote the book Democracy in America that talked about rising living standards and social conditions of individuals in the Western Hemisphere (United States).
Significance: Europe saw how the United States really was and started to model off of us. It really pushed Europe to industrialize and centralize.
Declaration of Sentiments
DEF: Document for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women.
SIG: Women are rising up to try and be viewed as equals to men.
"Cult of Domesticity"
DEF: The belief of the new family system that a women's realm of responsibility was to be at home and with the children.
SIG: Less drastic, and was a conflicting idea to the much more extreme side that believed all women are equal as men.
DEF: America was destined by God and history to expand its boundaries over a vast area.
SIG: Caused the great migration westward, and raised the issue of expansion of slavery.
DEF: Members from the Liberty, Democratic, and Whig parties, formed in opposition to slavery in the west territories.
SIG: Van Buren was nominated for president (first of this party), and they were part of the new Republican Party that formed in 1854.
DEF:Created by abolitionists who believed in political action to further antislavery goals.
SIG: Formed the Free Soilers later on, and was a major group in trying to abolish the evil of slavery.
Republic of Texas
DEF: Texas formed a separate nation after it gained independence from the Mexicans. (President was Sam Houston)
SIG:Later to be annexed and let into statehood by the US, but boundary disputes led to the Mexican-American War.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842
DEF: signed August 9, 1842, it was a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies, particularly a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border. Also banned the slave trade (on the ocean)
SIG: Settled a border dispute that could've possibly led to a war.
Bear Flag Revolt
DEF: A revolt against Mexico by American settlers in California who declared the territory an independent republic.
SIG: It sparked the Mexican War and resulted in California being introduced as a state.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
DEF: The treaty that ended the Mexican-American War.
SIG: The US acquired Texas, California and New Mexico, but payed Mexico $15 million. Raised sectional issues over expansion of slavery.
DEF: War over Texas, Rio Grande boundary, and the acquisition of new land (New Mexico area)
SIG: The treaty that ended the war gave the US the Nothern part of Texas, New Mexico and California. It decreased relations with Mexico.
"54'40' or Fight!"
DEF: The motto of James K Polk, threatened to fight Britain over the Oregon territory.
SIG: Polk called for expansion that included Texas, California, and the entire Oregon territory (Oregon line at 54'40'). Created the Oregon trail.
DEF: A bill in 1846 that tried to ban slavery in any territories won by the United States from Mexico, but it passed the HOR but failed in the Senate.
SIG: Stirred up intense sectional differences between the North and South (South thought slaves were property).
Dred Scott v. Sanford
DEF: Scott, a slave, sued for freedom when his master died. Scott thought he was free since he lived in a free territory for many years.
SIG: Taney, chief justice, stated that slaves were property, not people. Therefore, they cannot seek a ruling from any court.
Compromise of 1850
DEF: Created by Henry Clay, it allowed for California to enter the Union as a free state, enacted the Fugitive Slave Laws, and ended slave trade in DC.
SIG: Temporarily ending the tensions between the North and the South, but tensions rose in the North over the Fugitive Slave Act.
DEF: Political party started in 1854 with the goal of keeping slavery out of western territories.
SIG: Wanted to stop the growth of slavery, attracted many ex-whigs, liberals, and free soilers. First president elected from the party was Abraham Lincoln.
DEF: Pierce's envoys in Ostend, Belgium sent him a document that threatened to take Cuba by force.
SIG: It leaked to the public, north said it was conspiracy of trying to get another slave state, south liked the idea. Ultimately it was an embarrassment and ruined Polk's presidency.
DEF: The idea that political power belongs to the people.
SIG: This was a part of the Compromise of 1850, and it would be used in the Kansas-Nebraska Act to decide if slavery was allowed in these territories. Raised sectional issues and destroyed the Whig party.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
DEF: A fictional slave story written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in response to the Fugitive Slave Act.
SIG: Sold 500,000 copies within first year. The book linked moral issues with slavery.
Legal Tender Act of 1862
DEF: U.S. Congress passed the Legal Tender Act, which authorized the use of paper notes called greenbacks to pay the government's bills.
SIG: Caused inflation in the Union (not as bad as Confederacy), and started the trend for universal paper money, taxes had to be created to lessen inflation.
National Bank Act, 1863
DEF: Created a system of national banks for the Union.
SIG: Was used to back up the new paper notes, allow for borrowing and credit to supply money for the Union during the Civil War.
Homestead Act, 1862
DEF: Any citizen or prospective citizen could claim 160 acres of land and purchase it for a small fee after living on it for 5 years.
SIG: It was an aggressive economic plan for development, particularly in the West.
Morril (Land Grant) Act, 1862
DEF: Transferred substantial public acreage to the state governments, which sold the land to finance public education.
SIG: It led to the creation of many new state colleges and universities which improved education.
DEF: Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan called for a blockade of the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two.
SIG: Proved that this was a war of attrition, and ultimately was the successful plan that won the Union the war.
Battle of Vicksburg
DEF: Grant caused this port city on the Mississippi to surrender to the Union forces.
SIG: The Union forces now controlled all of the Mississippi River, and split the Confederacy into 2 parts (Anaconda Plan).
DEF: 2 Most famous were Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens, they believed in immediate emancipation of slaves and the abolition of slavery.
SIG: Believed the Confederates should receive harsher punishments, and believed that their leaders shouldn't be able to come back into politics after the war (suppress Democratic rule).
DEF: Lincoln made this announcement that all slaves in Confederate states were now free.
SIG: Pleased Radical Republicans, but still kept the slave states in the union together. It took away the Confederate workers.
DEF: Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War (Peace Democrats)
SIG: They undermined the war effort and posed a threat to Lincoln's reelection.
DEF: Agency of the Army that gave food, education, and land to freed blacks and poor whites.
SIG: Part of Reconstruction, it wasn't large enough and only lasted a year so it couldn't make that big of an impact on the deteriorating Southern society.
DEF: The North's way of changing the South so that it won't go back to its Antebellum period society.
SIG: This was imposed after the Union won the Civil War, and there were many debates and failed plans that were all trying to ensure that the South wont go back to its past ways.
DEF: Slavery is abolished in all of the U.S.
SIG: This ended slavery in all of the U.S. after the Confederate defeat in the Civil War.
DEF: Everyone born in the U.S., and everyone neutralized, is a citizen and are granted all the privileges and immunities given to a citizen.
SIG: First definition of US citizenship, and gave Blacks protected rights.
DEF: Granted all men the ability and protections to vote (especially Blacks).
SIG: Wasn't enforced very well, so supremist groups such as the KKK and others terrorized Blacks so they wouldn't be able to vote.
KKK Act, 1871
DEF: AKA Enforcement Acts, they prohibited people from discriminating against voters based on race, and gave the federal gov. power to prosecute those who break these laws.
SIG: First time the federal gov. had ever claimed power to prosecute crimes by individuals under federal law. Also, it declined the reign of the KKK over the South.
DEF: White men from the North moved to the South with all their possessions in a carpetbag for economic and/or political opportunity.
SIG: They increased the Republican government in the South and acted as a part of Reconstruction of the government in the south.
DEF: Southern white Republicans
SIG: Tried to help or receive help economically in the South (part of Reconstruction).
Compromise of 1877
DEF: For Hayes to be elected, the Republicans would have to withdraw their troops, have at least one Democrat in Hayes's Cabinet, control of fed patronage in their areas, give generous internal improvements, and give federal aid to Texas and Pacific Railroad.
SIG: Democrats could bring back Southern Antebellum society, and ended Reconstruction.
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