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FTCE - PreK to 3rd Grade - DEVELOPMENTAL KNOWLEDGE
Terms in this set (27)
Genetics (Child Development)
chromosomes, genes, human reproduction and cell division affect the building blocks of human organism. This factor also determines the child's physical traits. Example: ADHD is a disorder strongly linked to genes.
Health (Child Development)
associated to poverty, nutrition and social factors hinders from attaining to their full developmental potential.
Nutrition (Child Development)
Inadequate intake of good nutrition and mother's poor nutritional status during pregnancy are indicative of intrauterine growth restriction whereby affecting brain development. Exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of age helps in improving health and development of the child. Breastfed babies are less likely to develop obesity and will have lower cholesterol level in their later life. Fatty acid in breast milk develops brain and thus enhances cognitive development and visual acuity. Stunting is a chronic malnutrition and is caused by poor nutrition and infection
Public policy (Child Development)
Social policies play a key role in the lives of children and their families, and children rely very heavily on welfare services for their present and future well-being. Children's lives are substantially affected by the type and quality of welfare provision available, and their needs are met through a range of policy measures, including, for example, education, health, social services, and social assistance.
Environment (Child Development)
Research has linked negative home environments during children's first three
years with a host of developmental problems, including:
- poorer language development by age three.
- later behavior problems.
- deficits in school readiness.
- aggression, anxiety and depression.
- impaired cognitive development at age three
Longer-term effects have also been documented: A child's early home environment
and the skills he learns in the first three years have been linked to:
- high school graduation.
- teen parenthood.
- adult employment and earnings
Economics (Child Development)
Directly, increases in the family's financial
resources improved child well-being. Indirectly, governments can use the additional tax revenue that can come from
growth to provide services that benefit children and young people
Social-emotional and Smile
between two and seven months of age, we see the emergence of a social smile, which is a purposeful act
refers to the progressive and continuous growth of perception, memory, imagination, conception, judgment, and reason; it is the intellectual counterpart of one's
biological adaptation to the environment. This knowledge is subsequently used for problem solving and generalization to novel situations.
Physical (Developmental stages)
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS)
Symptoms include irritability, difficulty staying awake, seizures, abnormal breathing, poor eating, bruises, and vomiting.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
ranges from mild to severe, and can include: a small head. a smooth ridge between the upper lip and nose, small and wide-set eyes, a very thin upper lip, or other abnormal facial features. below average height and weight. hyperactivity. lack of focus. poor coordination.
According to Piaget, cognitive development is based primarily on four factors:
maturation, physical experience, social interaction, and a general progression toward equilibrium
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development describes cognitive "disequilibrium" as
a state of cognitive imbalance. We experience such a state of imbalance when encountering information that requires us to develop new schema or modify existing schema (i.e., accommodate).
Jean Piaget - Cognitive Theory
Assimilation-> Equilibration-> New Situation-> Disequilibrium (child encounters a novel
experience) -> Accommodation
Piaget Cognitive Development Theory
child must compensate for this disturbance and solve
the conflict between what he currently knows and his new experience
When a child encounters a new stimulus that does not fit into his existing cognitive
schema, his cognitive processes undergo the process of accommodation, whereby new schemes are developed to integrate the new information.
the ability to follow a
line of reasoning back to where it began
the ability to mentally arrange elements in
a series according to value, size, or any other criterion
the act of grouping
objects according to their similarities
Gross motor skills
refers to movements involving large muscles, such as trunk muscles used for
sitting upright and leg muscles used for walking.
Fine motor skills
Smaller muscles, such as those in the fingers
or tongue, are used for fine motor tasks, such as writing or talking, respectively.
Motor Skills Milestones
Months 4-9: Sitting without support
Months 5-11: Standing with assistance
Months 5-13: Crawling
Months 6-14: Walking with assistance
Months 7-17: Standing alone
Months 8-18: Walking alone
A child must be interested in socializing and communicating with others to be an effective
communicator. Consequently, difficulties with social interaction can profoundly impair communication; indeed, this problem is one of the hallmark features of autism. Infants have a preference for faces, and it is through this preference that they establish the foundation for early social relationships with others. Children establish imitation skills by studying others in their environment. This practice begins as imitation of facial expressions (such as smiles) and then develops into imitation of more complex behaviors, such as actions on objects (e.g., throwing a ball, emptying a container), specific motor patterns (e.g., clapping, dancing), and eventually speech and language development.
Jargon (Language Development)
when child tries to talk as fast as parents and it comes out as jibber-jabber, very expressive but not understandable
First 2 months: quasi-resonant nuclei may form the basis for later sound-making.
Three to four months: he produces cooing sounds, which approximate a single syllable consisting of a consonant and a vowel
9 to 10 months: Develop Jargon. At this time, adults will report that the baby seems
to be speaking a true language, except without true words
10 to 12 months of age, the first word emerges. The first word is typically an approximation of the true word, in that the child must produce a simplified version
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