Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Psych Exam Ch 1-3
Chapters 1-3 in Psychology 101 (Krull)
Terms in this set (216)
1. Usually therapists
2. Usually abnormal cases
3. Usually not scientists
1. Often not therapists
2. Often study normal cases
3. Often are scientists
the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning; most common
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable/change in behavior
approach to psychology that studies genes, the brain and other physical aspects
What percentage of psychologists are considered to be in the clinical field?
When was the first psychology lab started and by whom?
In 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany
How does clinical psychology differ from psychiatry?
Clinical psychology refers to people who are specialized in Psych with a PhD from a grad school. Psychiatrists go to med school and earn a MD
advocated by Titchenor, focuses on the structure of conscious experience by breaking it down psychologically
Advocated by Wundt, focuses on looking inward at one's own conscience
advocated by William James (1890), function of behaviors and thoughts are important not structure.
advocated by Max Weitheimer in 1910, a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts
the illusion or assumption that an object appears to be moving but really is not
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis
Advocated by John Watson in 1913 an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
Wrote "Walden 2", Famous Behaviorist interested in effects of reward and also invented many machines
Wrote "Psych as the Behaviorist Views It" , advocated the Behaviorist Manifesto
Wrote "Principals of Psych" which was the 1st Psych text book
One of the two most famous humanists; best known for ideas of motivation
United States psychologist who developed client-centered therapy (1902-1987)
therapist treats client with unconditional acceptance
Who was the first female president of APA?
Mary Whiton Calkins
Who was the 1st woman to earn a PhD in the US?
Margaret Floy Washburn
Who was the 1st African-American to earn a PhD in Psych?
1st African-American president of the APA?
What % of men have doctoral degrees in Psych?
a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that may not have been proven correct or incorrect
an opinion based on incomplete evidence that can be tested
What were Lehmann and colleagues's findings in 1988 about student skills from the 1st year to their 3rd?
No improvement in Law and Chem, about 25% increase in med school and about 70% increase in Psych
describe data collected by researcher
research to address real world problems
research in order to gain more knowledge about a specific subject and test theories.
an average of a set of numbers
middle value of a set of numbers
the most frequently seen number in a data set
When might using the mean pose a problem?
If there is an outlier in a set of numbers that could potentially "throw off" the average calculations
The simplest measure of variability which shows distance from the lowest to highest number in a data set
most common measure of variability. High SD = spread out numbers Low SD = numbers close together
seeks to describe a phenomenon
research that involved observation in a natural setting, type of descriptive research
study that focuses in-depth on an individual,usually there is something distinctive and potentially informative about this individual. type of descriptive research.
Public Opinion Poll
surveys peoples views on a topic, type of descriptive research
a sample from a portion of a population that can represent the population generally as a whole, unbiased
seeks to discover relationship between variables
Correlations range from _____ to _____
1 to -1
How strongly related a correlation is
data that shows 2 variables that rise and fall together
data that shows 2 variables that move in opposite directions
reason why correlation is not causation; either variable might cause the other
reason why correlation is not causation; there could be an outside variable effecting the results
seeks to discover if one variable causes another
more than one possible explanation for ones findings
randomly determining where each participant goes
variable the researcher alters in an experiment
variable that alters because of the effects of the independent variable
most common way to study the effect of two or more independent variables, all levels of each independent variable are combined with all levels of the other independent variables to produce all possible conditions.
effect due to a single independent variable
result caused by two or more independent variables working together
free from confounds, effects on DV are due to Independent variable
Regression to the mean
someones performance could be above or below average and then return to their normal
aspects of an investigation that tip off to the participants what the researcher wants from them. They then give those aspects to the researcher
people respond in an experiment that might be seen as socially acceptable
experimenter influences participants in a way that could change the outcome of the experiment
effects based on something a participant think will help but actually contain no effect
neither participants nor researcher know
refers to a degree in which a finding can be generalized across a population
probability that a finding could be due to chance
important or show some validity in a set of data
(ANOVA) allows us to calculate p
study of biological influences on thinking, emotion, and behavior
Centeral Nervous System
brain and spinal cord,
Peripheral Nervous System
remaining nerves throughout the body
cutting a hole in the skull
single cell in the nervous system
bundle of neurons
How many neurons are in the brain approx?
How man glial cells are in the brain approx?
about a trillion
what are the 6 parts of a neuron?
2. Cell Body
5. Myelin Sheath
6. Axon Ending
preform basic cell functions such as respiration and metabolism to keep cell alive
carries outgoing messages to other cells
receives incoming messages from other cells
receives incoming info and relays it to the brain and spinal cord (sensory)
receiveing incoming info from the brain and spinal cord and relays it to the muscles and glands
connect sensory or motor neurons or to other interneurons
suggests that the nervous system is composed of cells
He concluded that sensory and motor neurons are distinct and that sensory neurons are linked the the posterior nerve while motor neurons are linked to the anterior nerve
He conducted an experiment in 1822 on a puppy to determine which nerves connected to the afferent and efferent nerves
States that the posterior root of the spine carries info to the sensory (afferent) nerves and the anterior root carries info to the efferent nerves
brings up the question, "what is the relationship between the mind and the brain?"
What do we know so far about the mind-brain problem?
1. Whatever happens to the brain seems to influence the mind
2. Whatever happens the mind seems to influence the brain
Mueller's Doctorine of Specific Nerve Energies
Suggests that the sensations we feel are a result of specific nerve impulses
cells that help take care of neurons
Important glial cell that insulate axons with myelin in the CNS
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath
Myelinated axons are called "white matter" while cell bodies are called _______.
Important glial cell that insulate axons with myelin in the PNS. Only these kinds of cells help axons to regrow after injury
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Autoimmune disease that destroys myelin and causes person affected to have difficulty moving quickly and speaking clearly. Only occasional flare ups occur
largest type of glial cells that perform various functions such as the growth of neurons during prenatal development, removing waste, and holding neurons in place
a fatty substance that wrapped around axons to increase speed of nerve impulses
glial cell that helps remove dead neurons
the charge inside a cell without any inhibitory or excitatory interaction (approx. -70 millivolts)
What 2 ions within a cell are positively charged?
Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K)
Which ion within a cell is negatively charged?
the spreading out of particles in order to create an even distribution
the rule of opposite ions attract and positive ions repel
cellular membrane is more ________ to Sodium and Potassium than it is to Chloride
Helps redistribute ions in the cellular membrane. Na goes out while K is pushed in
threshold of excitation
value the membrane potential of a cell must reach to trigger a nerve impulse (usually about -55mV)
information that depolarizes the cell
information that hyperpolarizes the cell
absolute refractory period
period that a cell cannot fire a nerve impulse at all
relative refractory period
period in which a cell could fire a nerve impulse but requires greater excitation
all or none law
the fact that all nerve impulses are the same no matter the stimuli size.
stimulus intensity depends on __________
1. Rate of neurons firing
2. # of neurons firing
action potential at the first segment triggers an action potential at the second segment and so on.
What two factors contribute to the speed of conduction?
1. size of axon - larger are faster than small
2. myelination of an axon - myelinated axons are faster
nerve impulses "jump" from between nodes of ranvier, thus speeding up the impulse
What is the range of speed of an action potential?
2 mph to 225 mph
small gap between communicating cells
Within cells, communication is __________ but between cells communication is _________.
released when AP reaches axon terminal, then diffuse across synaptic gap and binds to receptors of the receiving cell
What 2 things can happen to eliminate neurotransmitters?
2. Neurotransmitters are destroyed
What inhibitor increases the availability of serotonin?
SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
receptors on the terminal membrane that monitor the amount of neurotransmitters that can be communicated in the synapse
(Aka: The Gas) primary excitatory neurotransmitter that has been associated with cocaine addiction
(Aka: The brake) primary inhibitory neurotransmitter affected by Alcohol and Valium
Neurotransmitter that is active at the neuromuscular junction
enzyme that breaks down ACh
Which two neurotransmitters are associated with Parkinson's and Schizophrenia?
Dopamine and Serotonin
What neurotransmitter is being referred to by the term, endogenous morphine which also is associated with pain reduction or control in the body?
Antagonists inhibit actions of neurotransmitters by _____
1. blocking receptors
2. blocking release of neurotransmitters
3. preventing storage of neurotransmitters in vesicles
Agonists enhance or mimic actions of neurotransmitters by ______
1. blocking reuptake (causing longer release)
2. blocking enzymes (so it doesn't break down)
3. by stimulating them (mimic)
Somatic nervous system
carries sensory info from afferent neurons to CNS and motor into from efferent neurons to muscles
Autonomic nervous system
carries sensory and motor info to the internal organs, usually are automatic actions
Sympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic system that arouses the body. Heart rate and respiration increases and digestion decreases
Parasympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic system that relaxes the body. heart rate and respiration remain normal and digestion increases
What are the 3 layers of meninges that protect the brain and spinal cord?
1. Dura mater (outer layer)
2. Arachnoid mater (spidery web)
3. Pia mater (inner layer)
very dangerous infection of the meninges
reflex in which afferent neurons connect to the efferent neurons to cause an action. can be overridden by your conscience
clear fluid similar to blood plasma that is made in the ventricles
Which 2 layers of meninges are the ventricles between?
The arachnoid mater and the pia mater
Cerebrospinal fluid drains away from the brain and into the _______.
Localization of function
the idea that certain brain areas are associated with certain functions
a procedure developed by Franz Gall that attempted to characterize someone by the shape of the skull
division of the brain right above the spinal cord
"bridge" where info crosses from the brain to the spinal cord
Medulla/ Medulla Oblongata
Located at the very top of the spinal cord and is involved in life functions such as heart rate, coughing, respiration, etc.
"little brain" wrinkled structure behind the pons and involved in coordination of movement, also involved in motor memory
between the hindbrain and the forebrain
extends from the hindbrain through midbrain to higher brain structures and is involved in alertness and arousal
makes dopamine, necessary for smooth and rapid movement. lack of dopamine production to basal ganglia can cause Parkinson's disease
largest division in the brain that houses many structures
routes sensory info except for smell to the cortex
top of the brain that has 2 hemispheres. involves in vision, sensation, hearing, language, movement etc
brain structure involved in motivation, also known as the master of the pituitary gland
brain structure that consolidates new memory
collection of brain structures in the forebrain involved in movement and posture, damage can cause Parkinson's
part of the basal ganglia that is thought to be the pleasure center of the brain
a brain structure involved with fear
The Limbic System
the collection of brain structures that are associated with emotion such as the hippocampus and the amygdala
What are the 4 major lobes of the cortex?
located in the front of the brain sometimes called the command center. includes the the motor cortex which is involved with voluntary movement
located on the sides of the brain, processes auditory info and language comprehension
located at the top of the brain, involved in sensory processing. also involved in attention.
located in the back of the brain, processes visual info as well as our awareness of vision
damage in visual cortex in which a person has visual ability but lacks awareness that they have vision
disorder that causes someone to ignore info on one side, almost always left side
The left hemisphere receives info from and controls the _____ side
The right hemisphere receives info from and controls the _______ side
Verbal ability, mathematics, problem solving logic, etc are all functions of which hemisphere?
Spacial ability, emotion, interpreting facial expressions and gestures are all functions of which hemisphere?
Which hemisphere is language primarily located on?
Language area located in the left frontal lobe
language disorder where someone has trouble producing speech
Language area located in the left temporal lobe
language disorder where someone has trouble comprehending and/or making sense of speech
Sodium Amytal (Wada) Test
1 hemisphere is anesthetized to find out which hemisphere someones language is located on (in case it may be on the right)
structure that connects the right and left hemispheres
split brain procedure
the cutting of the corpus callosum, thus interfering with the communication between the 2 hemispheres
Structural brain mapping
provide pictures of the structure of the brain. Examples: CAT, MRI
Functional brain mapping
provide info about brain activity and help to understand functions of brain structures Examples: EEG, PET, fMRI
Experimental brain mapping
manipulate brain activity through experiments
experiment where researcher damages area of the brain and see what is lost
stimulate area and see what the result is
corresponding forms of a gene
instructions in the DNA
ones expressed traits
two alleles that are the same
two different alleles
A genetic disorder that is caused by an extra copy on the 21st chromosome, characterized by intellectual impairment, distinctive facial features, greater risk for certain health issues
the study of influence of genes on behavior
disorder causes by mutation on chromosome 4 and characterized by intellectual impairment, emotional problems, and uncontrollable dance-like movements
influence of multiple genes on a trait
study of influence of the genes and environment by comparing similarities and differences within close relatives
study of influence of genes by comparing identical twins and fraternal twins
proportion of a trait's variability due to genes
probability that if one twin has a particular trait that the other has it also
study of influence of genes by comparing adopted children with their adoptive and/or biological parents
anterior pituitary gland
secretes growth hormone, endorphins and other hormones
posterior pituitary gland
secretes antidiuretic hormone, which affects urine production, and oxytocin
part of the adrenal glands that secretes cortisol and androstenedione
a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that is involved in reactions to stress
hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that can be used to produce testosterone and estrogen. also been marketed as a muscle building supplement and has been banned by sports organizations
part of the adrenal glands that secretes epinephrine aka: adrenalin and norepinephrine
organ of the endocrine system that secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar
hormone secreted by the pineal gland that regulates the sleep-wake cycle by making us sleepy
butterfly- shaped organ in of the endocrine system that influences metabolism and calcium in the blood
endocrine glands that help to regulate blood calcium
the process we use to identify people from their fingerprints
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
procedure used to make millions of copies of the relevant DNA sequence
the use of an electrical charge to make particles move (DNA sample)
Mice that have had a gene knocked out. 3 scientists shared a nobel peace prize by discovering this technique
refers to the idea that humans are affected by natural selection e.g. humans in the past might have had genes that helped them survive while others may have not
Why is evolutionary psych said to be controversial?
1. suggests that human differences are genetic but some psychologists say that human differences results from our upbringing
2. data is compatible with many interpretations, making the info unclear
Other sets by this creator
Anthropology Exam #1
Nutrition Exam Ch 1-3
Recommended textbook solutions
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Elliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Samuel R. Sommers, Timothy D. Wilson
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, Being
Michael R Solomon
Other Quizlet sets
Cost Management Module 1 Exam Review
AL 3500 Module 2
Psychology: Chapter 4 Terms