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FTCE - PreK to 3rd Grade - DEVELOPMENTAL KNOWLEDGE
Terms in this set (53)
Social-emotional development theorist
Eight Stages of Social-emotional Development
Trust vs. Mistrust (Infant), Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool), Industry vs. Inferiority (Grade School), Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence), Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, Integrity vs. Despair
Trust vs. Mistrust
a. Age: infancy through 1 or 2 years
b. Trust is developed over time by providing an infant with a consistent, comforting environment.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
a. Age: 18 month to 3½ or 4 years of age
b. Toddlers need to explore their own bodies and environment in order to become confident about themselves.
Initiative vs. Guilt
a. Age: 3½ to 5
b. When initiative is encouraged, a person experiments within one's environment.
Industry vs. Inferiority
a. Age: 5-12 years (Elementary School age )
b. When children experience success they attain a sense of adequacy and pride.
Cognitive Development Theorist
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete-Operational, Formal Operations
1. 0-2 years
i. Explore their world through senses and motor skills
ii. Understand the world by physically manipulating objects
1. 2-7 years
i. Preschoolers and early school-age children learn about their world through their actions
ii. They use symbols to mentally represent objects
iii. There is an increase in development of language and concepts
1. 7-11 years
i. Older school-age children learn about their world by applying logic
ii. They deal with changes and process
1. 11 + years
i. Early high-school children learn about their world through constructing and solving problems
ii. They begin to think about thinking
includes a child's ability to see, hear, speak, read, and write
Language Development theorist
believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes. Vygotsky viewed
language as man's greatest tool, a means for communicating with the outside world.
language plays 2 critical roles in cognitive development:
It is the main means by which adults transmit information to children.
Language itself becomes a very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation.
Possible Speech or Language Problems
1. No speech by age two.
2. Does not use two or three word sentences by age three
3. Difficulty understanding after age three.
4. Stutters after age five.
5. Has poor voice quality.
6. Problems understanding what is said.
Periods of communication development- Birth to 6 month
Respond to hearing their name; turn their heads and eyes towards the source of human voices they hear; respond accordingly to friendly and angry tones of voice
Periods of communication development- 12 month
Understand and follow simple directions, especially when these are accompanied by physical and or vocal cues.
Periods of communication development- 18 months
a. Vocabulary of roughly 5 to 20 words
b. Use nouns in their speech most of the time
c. Repeat certain words and or phrases over and over
d. Can follow simple commands without needing as many visual cues
Periods of communication development- 2 years
a. Vocabulary of about 150 to 300 words
b. They can name various familiar objects found in their environments
c. They are able to use at least 2 prepositions in their speech (Ex: in, on and)
d. Sentences tend to be mostly noun-verb or noun-verb (ex: Daddy work, go out, come in)
Periods of communication development- 3 years
a. Vocabulary of about 900 to 1,000 words
b. Use pronouns I, you, me correctly
c. Is using some plurals and past tenses
d. Knows at least three prepositions, usually in, on, under
e. Knows chief parts of body and should be able to indicate these if not name
f. Handles three word sentences easily
g. Has in the neighborhood of 900-1000 words
h. About 90% of what child says should be intelligible
i. Verbs begin to predominate
j. Understands most simple questions dealing with his environment and activities
k. Relates his experiences so that they can be followed with reason
l. Able to reason out such questions as "what must you do when you are sleepy, hungry, cool, or thirsty?"
m. Should be able to give his sex, name, age
n. Should not be expected to answer all questions even though he understands what is expected
Periods of communication development- 4 years
a. Knows names of familiar animals
b. Can use at least four prepositions or can demonstrate his understanding of their meaning when given commands
c. Names common objects in picture books or magazines
d. Knows one or more colors
e. Can repeat 4 digits when they are given slowly
f. Can usually repeat words of four syllables
g. Demonstrates understanding of over and under
h. Has most vowels and diphthongs and the consonants p, b, m, w, n well established
i. Often indulges in make-believe
j. Extensive verbalization as he carries out activities
k. Understands such concepts as longer, larger, when a contrast is presented
l. Readily follows simple commands even though the stimulus objects are not in sight
m. Much repetition of words, phrases, syllables, and even sounds
Periods of communication development- 5 years
a. Can use many descriptive words spontaneously-both adjectives and adverbs
b. Knows common opposites: big-little, hard-soft, heave-light, etc
c. Has number concepts of 4 or more
d. Can count to ten
e. Speech should be completely intelligible, in spite of articulation problems
f. Should have all vowels and the consonants, m,p,b,h,w,k,g,t,d,n,ng,y (yellow)
g. Should be able to repeat sentences as long as nine words
i. Should be able to follow three commands given without interruptions
j. Should know his age
k. Should have simple time concepts: morning, afternoon, night, day, later, after, while
l. Tomorrow, yesterday, today
m. Should be using fairly long sentences and should use some compound and some complex sentences
n. Speech on the whole should be grammatically correct
Periods of communication development- 6 years
a. In addition to the above consonants these should be mastered: f, v, sh, zh, th,1
b. He should have concepts of 7
c. Speech should be completely intelligible and socially useful
d. Should be able to tell one a rather connected story about a picture, seeing relationships
e. Between objects and happenings
Periods of communication development- 7 years
a. Should have mastered the consonants s-z, r, voiceless th, ch, wh, and the soft g as in George
b. Should handle opposite analogies easily: girl-boy, man-woman, flies-swims, blunt-sharp short-long, sweet-sour, etc
c. Understands such terms as: alike, different, beginning, end, etc
d. Should be able to tell time to quarter hour
e. Should be able to do simple reading and to write or print many words
Periods of communication development- 8 years
a. Can relate rather involved accounts of events, many of which occurred at some time in the past
b. Complex and compound sentences should be used easily
c. Should be few lapses in grammatical constrictions-tense, pronouns, plurals
d. All speech sounds, including consonant blends should be established
e. Should be reading with considerable ease and now writing simple compositions
f. Social amenities should be present in his speech in appropriate situations
g. Control of rate, pitch, and volume are generally well and appropriately established
h. Can carry on conversation at rather adult level
i. Follows fairly complex directions with little repetition
j. Has well developed time and number concepts
Physical Developmental Milestone- 2 years
Able to run. Walks up and down stairs 2 feet per step. Builds tower of 6 cubes
Physical Developmental Milestone- 3 years
Goes up stairs 1-foot per step and downstairs 2 feet per step. Copies circle, imitates hand motions and draws man on request. Builds tower of 9 cubes
Physical Developmental Milestone- 4 years
Goes down stairs one foot per step, skips on one foot. Imitates gate with cubes, copies a cross
Physical Developmental Milestone- 5 years
Skips on both feet and hops. Draws a man and copies a triangle. Gives age
Physical Developmental Milestone- 6 years
Copies a diamond. Knows right from left and number of fingers
Genetics, physiological maturation, nutrition, and experience through practice combine to further preschoolers motor skills development
gross motor skills
Large Muscles for climbing, running and jumping
fine motor skills
Small Muscles for drawing and tying knots, eye-coordination
Gender Differences in Motor Development- boys
Preschool _____ have larger muscles than preschool _____: they can run faster, climb higher and jump farther.
Gender Differences in Motor Development- Girls
_____ tend to surpass ______ in small muscle, fine-motor abilities like buttoning buttons, using scissors, and similar activities involving the manipulation of small tools and utensils
Physical Developmental Stages - 2 years old
From birth to ____ years, children generally grow to four times their newborn weight
Physical Developmental Stages - 2-3 years old
From _____ years, children usually gain only about 4 Ibs
Physical Developmental Stages - 4 years old
_____ year olds appear to eat less food, but do not; they actually just eat fewer calories per pound of body weight
Physical Developmental Stages - 4-4.5 years old
The majority of the brain growth is usually ______ years
Physical Developmental Stages - 5-6 years old
______ years growth rates is significantly slow
Genetics (Child Development)
chromosomes, genes, human reproduction and cell division affect the building blocks of human organism. This factor also determines the child's physical traits. Example: ADHD is a disorder strongly linked to genes.
Health (Child Development)
associated to poverty, nutrition and social factors hinders from attaining to their full developmental potential.
Nutrition (Child Development)
Inadequate intake of good nutrition and mother's poor nutritional status during pregnancy are indicative of intrauterine growth restriction whereby affecting brain development. Exclusive breastfeeding up to six months of age helps in improving health and development of the child. Breastfed babies are less likely to develop obesity and will have lower cholesterol level in their later life. Fatty acid in breast milk develops brain and thus enhances cognitive development and visual acuity. Stunting is a chronic malnutrition and is caused by poor nutrition and infection
Public policy (Child Development)
Social policies play a key role in the lives of children and their families, and children rely very heavily on welfare services for their present and future well-being. Children's lives are substantially affected by the type and quality of welfare provision available, and their needs are met through a range of policy measures, including, for example, education, health, social services, and social assistance.
Environment (Child Development)
Research has linked negative home environments during children's first three
years with a host of developmental problems, including:
- poorer language development by age three.
- later behavior problems.
- deficits in school readiness.
- aggression, anxiety and depression.
- impaired cognitive development at age three
Longer-term effects have also been documented: A child's early home environment
and the skills he learns in the first three years have been linked to:
- high school graduation.
- teen parenthood.
- adult employment and earnings
Economics (Child Development)
Directly, increases in the family's financial
resources improved child well-being. Indirectly, governments can use the additional tax revenue that can come from
growth to provide services that benefit children and young people
Social-emotional (Developmental stages)
Cognitive (Developmental stages)
Language (Developmental stages)
Physical (Developmental stages)
Symptoms include irritability, difficulty staying awake, seizures, abnormal breathing, poor eating, bruises, and vomiting.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
ranges from mild to severe, and can include: a small head. a smooth ridge between the upper lip and nose, small and wide-set eyes, a very thin upper lip, or other abnormal facial features. below average height and weight. hyperactivity. lack of focus. poor coordination.
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