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Thinking, Concepts and Creativity
Terms in this set (71)
all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
- demonstrated through the ability to form concepts
a mental image or best example of a category.
- Matching new items to a
prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories.
Simple categories in language/cognition.
- Allows for clear images to be formed from everyday, neutral references.
- Most likely to be used.
A bit more complicated than the basic level.
- It will contain all things that are similar, like an umbrella term.
More informative and complex than the other levels.
- More specific.
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
- Intelligence helps to predict creativity
Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.
- This is like many intelligence tests.
Expands the number of possible problem solutions.
- Think "How many uses can you think of for a brick?"
impede these forms (convergent and divergent) of thinking, so imagination can be lost.
Five Components of Creativity
identified by Robert Sternberg and his colleagues (Expertise, Imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation and a creative environment)
The more we know, the more likely we are to combine them in new ways.
Imaginative thinking skills
This allows us to see things in novel ways, recognize patterns, and to make connections
A venturesome personality
Seeks new experiences, tolerates ambiguity and risk
Being self motivated improves creativity
A creative environment
You need the opportunity to use your creativity
What boosts creativity
1. Developing expertise:
- Follow your passions
2. Allowing time for incubation:
- Think on a hard problem, then set it aside and come back to it later
3. Letting the mind to roam freely
4. Experience other cultures or ways of thinking:
- Multiple perspectives helps flexible thinking
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
- They are step-by-step and can take a lot of time to complete, but it is more reliable.
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems
- These are thinking short cuts, so they are faster, but are prone to errors.
A sudden realization of a problem's solution.
- There is no strategy here (like with algorithms or heuristics), it is an "Ah-ha" moment.
leaving a problem for a period of
time and finding the difficulty gone upon returning to the problem
This refers to thinking about thinking.
- You can control your own thoughts.
the tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore
or distort contradictory evidence
- arguing with your friends about something, searched the internet for
your point of view, then chosen the first result as irrefutable proof that you are correct
Self Serving Bias
the tendency to attribute success to our internal characteristics while blaming failure on external causes
Self Fulfilling Prophecy
a prediction or belief, that alters behavior and
overtime becomes true
the belief that you "knew it all along" after an event occurs
When we incorrectly represent a problem, it is often difficult to see it from a
Mental Set (type of fixation)
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been
successful in the past
Functional Fixedness (a type of Mental Set)
the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use
make most of your daily decisions, you do not take time or effort to
- Instead you follow Intuition
An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted
with explicit, conscious reasoning.
- Often time, heuristics enable these snap judgements.
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or
match, particular prototypes - which may lead us to ignore information.
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in
- If something comes to mind quickly, we may presume it is a common occurrence.
- if you are unable to see a change or issue, it is likely that you will
not be concerned
to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements.
- Often we underestimate how long it will take us to complete an assignment, or overestimate
how much free time we will have
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been
The way an issue is posed.
- You have a 10% chance to lose vs. a 90% chance to win
- can be used to nudge people to the perspective you want
-Controls language expression.
-Allows for the muscle movements involved in speech
- Controls language reception.
- Involved in comprehension and expression.
This refers to an impairment of language
Receptive (Wernicke's) Aphasia
occurs when someone is unable to understand language.
occurs when someone is unable to produce language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
- "the jewel in the crown of cognition."
the smallest distinctive sound unit in language
smallest unit that carries meaning
difference between phonemes and morphemes
- Phones carry sounds, like Phonemes
- Morphemes have meaning - they both start with "m."
system of rules in language that allows us to communicate with and understand each other
set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds
the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.
the structure of grammar as it is actually used by people
- This means some phrases can be grammatically correct in a community, even if
they aren't by the standards of written English.
the authority or rules for grammar.
- Think of your use of academic English on papers.
series of semantic relationships between concepts.
B.F. Skinner would...
use Operant Conditioning to explain how we learn language.
- You learn through behavioral consequences which will teach you how you should speak.
Albert Bandura would...
use Social Learning Theory to explain how we learn language.
- You learn how to speak by observing others speak.
four stages to developing language
1. The Cooing Stage
2. The Babbling Stage
3. Holophrastic or One-Word Stage
4. Two-Word Stage
The Cooing Stage
This is the earliest stage in language development.
- Infants in this stage will be able to make simple vowel sounds.
The Babbling Stage
- By 4 months of age, babies can recognize differences in speech sounds and read lips.
- This means they know the "ah" sound comes from a wide open mouth, not that they
know everything you are saying
- the start of receptive language
-By 7 months of age, babies begin to segment spoken sounds into individual words.
- After 4 months of age, babies will begin to utter consonant-vowel pairs (ma-ma) etc.
- By 10 months, babies will babble in their household language.
- After this point, if a baby is not exposed to a language they will lose their ability to hear
and produce sounds and tones found outside of their native language. This is seen in the Critical/Sensitive Period Theory
the ability to understand what is said to and about them
Critical/Sensitive Period Theory
the first few years of life are seen as the best and easiest time to
acquire a language.
- You can still learn a new one, but it will be influenced by your native
Holophrastic or One-Word Stage
This occurs around the age of 1 to about 2.
- In this stage, a child will speak mostly in single words.
- around age 2, children begin to use telegraphic speech and speak in mostly two-word statements.
- You might see Overregularization around this stage.
early speech were a child speaks like a telegram, using
mostly nouns and verbs.
when a child attempts to make language more regular than it is.
- For example, they will say breaked instead of broken. Mouses instead of Mice.
- This will be seen as children continue to learn the irregularities of their
Statistical Learning in language
Babies are able to hear and learn the statistical aspects of human speech.
- They are great at word breaks and pairing syllables.
- This skill diminishes over time.
victim of child abuse
- isolated and never learned to speak.
- She was not discovered until she was 13 - after the Critical Period for Language.
- Researchers worked to try to teach her language.
- They noted that she was able to tell a story using pictures and problem solve, so she
- She was able to learn basic grammar, but never was able to fully develop her language
- Researchers lost access to her when she turned 18, but they reported that her language
acquisition had slowed down greatly by then.
Linguist Noam Chomsky
argues that all languages share basic elements,
which he calls Universal Grammar.
- All human languages have nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
- argues that humans are born with a built-in
predisposition to learn grammar rules (Nativism)
Basically, our language is due to nature
- it is innate in us.
- This also might be referred to as the Nativist Theory.
Language Acquisition Device (Chomsky)
a hypothetical brain structure that contains significant innate knowledge of language.
- this will allow for Universal Grammar and help to explain why highly abstract language
can result from a relatively deprived input.
Chomsky's idea of Surface vs. Deep Structure of Language
The Deep Structure is the many possible meanings of a sentence.
- The Surface Structure is the simple arrangement of words into a sentence
Benjamin Lee Whorf and Edward Sapir believe...
"language itself shapes a [person's] basic ideas"
The structure of a speaker's language affects their world view or cognition.
Language determines how we think
in Interactionist Model for language development.
- In this model, children learn language through interaction.
- First children will observe communication/interactions between their parents and others.
- Later that child will be able to communicate and will want to interact with others to
- At first the parent will interact and lead the child through problem solving, but eventually
the child will take over and learn to problem solve on their own.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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