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278 terms

A& P Midterm

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The radius articulates with the
Ulna,carpals, and humerus
The genetically programmed death of cells is called
Apoptosis
You would expect a peptide bond to link with
Two amino acids
The most abundant cell type in bone is
osteocytes
Which of the following is NOT a component of the Appendicular skeleton?
None of the above, all are appendicular bones
(femur, scapula,humerus, and metatarsals are in the skeleton)
Which of the following substances would be most acidic?
Stomach secretions, pH=1
Chemical reactions that asorb energy are called
Endrogonic
What functions to propagate electrical signal from one place to another?
Neorons
The most common type of cartilage is?
Hyaline Cartalige
The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of processes from which two bones?
Temporal and Zygomatic
the common term for the buccal region?
Cheek
The suture that forms the articulation of the two parietal bones ?
Sagittal suture
Stem cells that can differentiate into osetoblasts are called
Osetoprogenator
This prevents damaging bone to bone contact within movable joints
Articular cartilage
The expanded articular end of an epiphsis that is separeted from the shaft by a narrower neck is termed
An Head
The shaft of a long bone is
The diaphysis
Which of the following is NOT an upper limb bone?
Metetarsals(feet)
Epithelial cells exhibit modifications that adapt them for
secretions
The tissue that always has a "top" and a "bottom" is
Epithelial tissue (base layer and bottom layer)
The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bones with the frontal bones is the
coronal suture
A homogenenous mixture containing a solvent and a solute is
a Solution
A hole through a bone is termed
Foramen
The triplet codes needed to specify a specific polypeptide chain are found in the
Gene
The three familiar states of matter are solids, liquids and
Gases
The wrist is ________ to the Elbow
Distal
The epithelial that line body cavities and blood vessels are classified as
Simple Squamous
Lungs are to the respiratory system as the liver is the
Digestive System
The scapula articulates with the humerus at the
Glenohumeral
__________ are soluble inorganic compounds whose solutions will conduct an electrical current.
Electrolytes
Sinus inflammation is termed ________
Synsitis
Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to
Bone
Simple columnar Epithelia are found
Lining the stomach
The second cervical vertebra is usually call the
Axis
The clearest distinction between a male and female skeleton is seen in the characteristics of the
Pelvis
Each of the following is associated with the temporal bone, EXCEPT the
sella turcica
During mitosis, chromatids seperate into daughter chromosomes during
Anaphase
When homeostatic mechanisms fail, and individual will experience the symptoms of ______________
Illness or disease
Ossification of the sternum is not complete until at least age of
25
The Pyrimidine bases found in DNA are
Cystonin and Thymine
If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a __________ occurs.
Polar covalent bond
Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape?
Vertebra
Ribs that have no connection to the sternum are called
false ribs
Which of the following statements about water is NOT correct?
Has a relatively low heat capacity
A small rough bump on bone where a tendon attaches is called ____________
Tuburocistiy
The analysis of the internal structure of individual cells is called
Cytology
Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex, EXCEPT the ___________
Nasal Bone
The pituitary gland and thyroid gland are organs of the ________________ system
Endorcrine
A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is ofter called a _____________
Pott fracture
Which of the following labels best matches osteocytes?
Mature bone cell
____________ free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels.
Osteoclast
Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as ______________
Perforation Canals
A skull bone that could be described as looking like a bat with wings extended is the
Sphenoid
The smallest stable units of matter are
Atoms
You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the
Trachea
Simple cuboidal epithelium is found
Forming the kidney tubules (duct)
The lining of the heart and blood vessels is called
Endothelium
The body's first tissue response to any injury is
Inflammation
During the process of ___________ an exisiting tissue is replaced by bone.
Ossification
Which of the following is arranged in correct order from most complex to the simplest?
Organisms,system,organ,tissue,cellular, molecular
The _____________ of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed in moles per liter.
Ph
When activated, lysosomes function in
Digestion of foreign material
A solution containing equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is
Neutral
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the male pelvis?
The angle of the pubic arch is greater than 100 degrees
Which of the following membranes line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body?
Mucous
Bone is composed of _________ percent cells.
2%
Which of the following is NOT a part of the pelvis?
Lumbar Vertbrae
All are true of neurons, EXCEPT that
They are specialized form of connective tissue.
The longest and heaviest bone in the body is the
Femur
_________fractures are completely internal; they do not break through the skin.
Closed
Which of the following is the heel bone?
Calcaneus
Anatomy has a specialized language,called______________, that involves the use of word roots, prefixes,suffixs, and combining forms to construct terms related to the body in health and disease.
Medical Terminology
Compounds that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions in the body are called
Metabolites
Which of the following bones is NOT part of the Appendicular skeleton?
Sacrum
Endochondral ossificiation begins with the formation of a
Cartilage model
The watery fluid component of the blood is called ____________
Plasma
When seated, the weight of the body is borne by the
Ischial tuberosities
The combination of fibers and ground substance in supporting connective tissues is known as
Matrix
Which of the following is NOT considered an abdominopelvic region
Upper
Which of these constitutes the pectoral girdle?
Clavicles and scapulae
Glands that secrete hormones in the interstitial fluid are
Endocrine glands
Ribs 8 to 13 are called __________because they do not attach directly to the sternum.
False ribs
An imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce views inside the body is the
MRI scan
The "atomic number" of an atom is determined by the number of _________ it has
Protons
The four curves of the adult spinal column are not all present at birth. Which of the following are the secondary curves, those that do not appear until several months later?
Cervical and lumbar
You witness one of your friends in a fight. your friend Gregg is hit in the jaw and when looking at him you see his face is misaligned. What has he broken?
Mandible
Humans normally have_______ pairs of ribs
12
The heart is _________to the lungs.
Medial
the watery component of the cytoplasm is called
Cytosol
If a response INCREASES a disturbance, the system is classified as a _________ feedback system.
Positive
The vertebral column contains _________lumbar vertebrae.
5
Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
Calcium
The sacrum protect these organs:
Digestive, urinary, and reproductive
The study of the general form and superficial markings of an organism is called ____________anatomy.
Surface
Which of the following is a NOT characteristic of the female pelvis?
Coccyx points anteriorly
Osseous tissue is also called
Bone
The molecule DNA contains a five-carbon sugar called
Deoxyribose
Which of the following regions corresponds to the buttocks?
Gluteal
The mass number represents the number of
Protons + Neutrons
The control center for cellular operations is the
Nucleus
The purines found in DNA are
Adenine and Guanine
Tina falls and fracture her pisiform bone. What part of the body was injured:
Wrist
Chemical reactions that yield energy, such as heat, are said to be
Exergonic
The surface feature present along the lateral border of the shaft of humerus is the
Deltoid tuberosity
The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the
Acromion
An anatomical term that means the SAME as ventral:
Anterior
Carbohydrate molecules
Are the body's most readily available source of energy
Identify a structure located within the mediastinum
Pericardial Sac
Which of these is a forearm bone?
Radius
Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream?
Respiratory
The known as the diaphragm separates the _________ from the _________.
Thoracic cavity; adominopelvic cavity
The heart and blood vessels are lined by
simple squamous epithelium
Tissue that is specialized for contraction is ___________ tissue.
Muscle
The humerous is an example a _________ bone.
Long
Isotopes of an element differ in the number of
Neutrons in the nucleus
Chemical reactions that release energy are called
Exergonic
Ionic bonds are formed when
Electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.
The center of an atom is called the
Nucleus
A polysaccharide that is formed in liver and muscle cells to store glucose is
Glycogen
Extracellular fluid serves as
A reserve area
The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the
Peritoneum
Epithelial cells that are adapted for absorption or secretion usually have ____________ at their free surface.
Microvilli
Small, oddly shaped bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called _________ bones.
Sutural
Molecules that do not readily dissolve in water are called
Hydrophobic
the lower jaw articulates with the temporal bone at the
Mandibular fossa
What organ is located in the lacrimal fossa
The lacrimal ramus
The ribs articulate with the
Thoracic vertebrae
Kinetic energy is stored as ___________ energy when a spring is stretched.
Potential
The study of the function of specific organ systems is called
systemic physiology
Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, are called
Isotopes
The central canal of an osteon contains
Blood vessels
Which of the following is NOT part of the axial division of the skeletal system:
Pectoral girdle
The epithelium that lines the body cavities is known as
Mesothelium
Cells that store fat are called
Adipocytes
The basic shapes of epitherlial cells include all of the following, EXCEPT
Oval
Cholesterol,phospholipids, and glycolipids are examples of
Structural lipids
The _____________ allow for a wide range of head movements.
Cervical vertebra
The odontoid process is found on the
Axis
The hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica contains the __________ gland.
Pituitary
The most abundant high-energy compound is cells is
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The lining of the medullary cavity is called the
Endosteum
When stress is applied to a bone,
The minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts.
Anatomical features that changes during illness are studied in ___________anatomy
Pathological
During ionization, water molecules disrupt the ionic bonds of a salt to produce a mixture of ions. These ions can carry a current and so are called
Electrolytes
Ions with a + charge are called
Cations
Most of the fat found in the human body is in the form of
Triglycerides
A person lying face down is in the________position
Prone
___________fibers are stronger than steel when stretched.
Collagen
_________is the fluid componet of connective tissue.
Plasma
The chin is ________ to the nose.
Inferior
The five vertebral regions are the cervical,thoracic, lumbar,sacral, and _____________
Coccyal
Which of following is a function of the axial skeleton?
Provides an attachment for muscles that move the appendicular skeleton
Provides an attachment for muscles that move the head,neck, and trunk
Provides an attachment for muscles involved in respiration
The shaft of long bones is called the ___________
Diaphsis
The study of the first two months of development is termed
Embryology
The vertical column contains ___________ thoracic vertbrae
12
Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the
Mitochondria
The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by
The outermost electron shell
In living cells, complex metabolic reactions proceed in the series of step called a ____________
Pathways
Which one of the following is NOT one of the four main tissue categories?
Osseous tissue
Epithelia and connective tissues combine to form ___________ that cover and protect structures and tissues in the body.
skin
The maintenance of a constant internal environment in a organism is termed
Homeostasis
The study of the superficial and internal features in a specific area of the body is called _________ anatomy
Regional
Connective tissue fibers are produced mainly by
Fibroblastes
The greater sciatic notch is a feature on the
Illium
Chondroitin sulfate is abundant in the matrix of
Cartilage
Synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the
Smooth ER
A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called
Hypontonic
__________ compounds do not usually contain carbon as a primary structural atom
Inorganic
The three kinds of formed elements in blood are __________,___________ and____________.
Red, white and Platelets
The adult skeleton contains _______ major bones.
206
The depostition of calcium salts in bone tissue is referred to as
Calcification
The bones that form the palm are the
Metacarpals
The components of ribosomes are formed within
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The potential difference across the cell membrane is due to the separation of
Phospholipids and proteins
_________ is considered the oldest medical science
Anatomy
Each of the following is an example of a nonmembranous organelle, EXCEPT
Lysosomes
If a response DECREASES a disturbance,the system is classified as a _____________ feedback system.
Negative
What type of cell makes up almost half the volume of blood?
Erthrocyte
A type of intercellular juction that stops materials from crossing an epithlium between cells is termed an
Desmosome
Which property of water helps keep body temperature stabilized?
Thermal Inertia
An amino acid is a protein as ________ is to a nucleic acid.
A nucleotide
Which of the following cytoskelton components moves the chromosomes during cell division?
Microtubules
A condition in which bone becomes riddled with holes is called
Osteoporosis
In an aqueous solution, cations are attracted toward
anions
Bones that develop within tendons are called _________ bones
Sesamoid
Which of the following chemicals is NOT present in bone?
Chondroitin Sulfate
Ions with a negative charge are called _________
Anions
The smallest living unit within the human body is
The cell
each of the following is an example of an inorganic compound, EXCEPT
Rocks
Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation?
Skeletal
The process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier proteins is called
Facilitated diffusion
Electrons whirl around the center of the atom at high speed, forming an ______________
Electron cloud
During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs.
Telophase
The hydrolysis of ATP yields ADP, phospate ion, and _________________
Energy
The actual mass of an atom is known as its
Atomic weight
A person facing forward with hands at the sides and palms facing forward is in the
Anatomincal Position
The nasal Conchae
Create turbulence in the nasal passageways
The tendency for physiological systems to stabilize internal conditions is called ________
Homeostatis
Another name for the first toe is
Hallux
The kidneys and ureters are organs of the _________ system.
Urinary
The group of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a near 1:2:1 ratio is defined as a
Carbohydrate
The ___________ bone is unusual because it doesn't contact another bone
Hyiod
The complex structures of DNA and protein found in the cell nucleus are
Chromosomes
The most important metabolic fuel molecule in the body is
Glucose
Which of the following terms is NOT used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?
Cell wall
This type of feedback exaggerates the effects of variations from normal
Positive
The zygomatic bone articulates with the __________ bone to form the zygomatic arch.
Temporal
Which of the following is NOT a function of membrane proteins?
Cell nutrient
An exaggerated lateral curvature is termed
Scoliosis
A________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.
Canal
__________molecules are compounds that contain carbon as the primary structural atom.
Organic
The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include of the following EXCEPT
Pelvic quadrant
Mary,who is 6 months pregnant, goes to her physician for a test to check the developement of her fetus. The physician uses a device that emits sound waves to produce an image of the fetus. This technique is
An ultrasound
A ___________ is a pure substance composed of atoms.
Element
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine is called
Scoliosis
Diffusion of a substances across the cell membrane is influenced by all of the following, EXCEPT
Hydrolysis of ATP
The reaction N2+3H2-->2NH3 is an example of a
Synthesis reaction
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the endocrine system?
Produces a more rapid response than the nervous system
mRNA is needed to synthesize __________ in the cytoplasm.
Proteins
Skin,hair, and nails are associated with the ________ system.
Integumentary
Oppositely charged ions in solution are prevented from combining by
Hydrogen bonding
Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are called
Isomers
Each one of the coxal bones is formed by the fushion of _________bones.
4
A lack of exercise could
Result in porous and weak bones
True ribs are directly connected to the sternum by ___________
Costal cartilage
The mass of an atom is largely determined by the number of ______ it has.
Protons and neutrons
Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes?
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
While visiting a friend who recently gave birth, she comments on her infant's soft spot. You thing to yourself that the correct term for the "soft spot" located at the intersection of the frontal, sagittal,and coronal sutures is
Anterior fontanel
In the process of _______ a phosphate group is transferred to a molecule.
Phospherolation
Most of the cell's DNA is located in its
Nucleus
The movement of oxygen from an are of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example
Diffusion
Cardiovascular physiology is an example
Systemic physiology
Each of the following is an example of dense connective tissue, EXCEPT
Areolar tissue
Substrate molecules bind to enzymes at the ________ sites.
Active
the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity is the
Peritoneum
Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that
Facilitated diffusion consumes no ATP
The narrow region between the head and shaft of a long bone is call the _________
Metaphesis
The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the
Thoracic and abdominopelvic
Through the action of asteoclasts
Bone matrix is dissolved
Ions with a positive charge are called _______
Cation
A fatty acid that contains two or more double covalent bonds is said to be
Polyunsaturated
Which of the following is a function of the skeletal system
Protection of Internal organs
Calcium homeostasis
Body support
Blood cell production
The principal cations in our body fluids are ________ and ___________.
Sodium; potassium
Electrons in an atom occupy an orderly series of electron shells or _______________
Energy levels
Tubulin is a microtubules as actin is to
Microfilaments
The most abundant mineral in the human body is
Calcium
While standing erect, the direction of caudel is
Downward
When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of
Negative feedback
A rib is an example of a ________ bone.
Flat
The foreman magnum is found in the __________ bone.
Occipital
__________ are molecules with two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group that form biological membranes.
Phospholipids
The right pleural cavity contains the
Right lung
The longest bone is the
Femur
a process that requires cellular energy to move a substance against its concentration gradient is called
Diffusion
Radioisotopes have unstable
Nuclei
The study of the liver is to gross anatomy as the study of the liver cell is to
Cytology
The carpal bones are examples of __________ bones.
Short
A changer within a bone normally with air is a _________
Sinus
Molecules that store and process genentic information are the
Nucleic acids
Lipids
Form essential structural components of cells
Cushion organs against shocks
Help to maintain body temperature
Provide roughly twice the energy as carbohydrates
The "atomic weight" of an atom reflects the average number of
Protons + Neutrons
Which of the following terms refers to the foot?
Pedal
Damage to a bone because of extreme load, sudden impact, or stresses applied from and unusual direction is called a
Compression fracture
All of the following are true concerning enzymes, EXCEPT that they
Are consumed during reaction
Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called
Osteoblasts
Elements that have atoms with full outer shells of electrons
Are inert gases
Which plane divides the body into right and left parts?
Sagittal
Functions of epithelia include all of the following, EXCEPT
Supporting muscle cells
_________accelerate chemical reactions that occur in the human body.
Enzymes
The calvaria (or skullcap) is formed by the ________ bones
Frontal,parietal, and occipital
The branch of biological science that deals with the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions is called
Physiology
The process of depositing calcium into a tissue is called
Calcification
The bones of the forearm, or ___________, consists of the radius and ulna.
Anti-bracium
According to the rules of complementary base pairing in nucleic acids, cytosine would pair with the base
Guanine
The common name for the patella is the ___________
Kneecap
The common term for the carpal region is the __________
Wrist
The branch of biological science that studies the external and internal structure of the body and the physical relationship among body parts is called
Anatomy
The stage in a cell's life cycle in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called
Interphase
Transitional epithelium is found
Lining of the urinary bladder