US History & Gov't Midterm 2018
Terms in this set (51)
individual who agreed to work without wages for a period of time in exchange for transportation to the colonies
Framework for self-government of the Plymouth Colony signed on the Ship the Mayflower in 1620
He was appointed to be the commitee of draft on the Decleration Of Independence. He limited taxes from the people such as reducing the military and legal document taxes. He repealed the alien and sedition acts. He decreased national debt.
Wrote the book Common Sense during the beginning of the American Revolution. Common Sense proposed a radical course of action for the colonies: independence from Britain, republic state governments, and a union of new states
Declaration of Independence
Document drawn up by the Second Continental Congress that announced American Independence and the reasons for it.
act or statement that becomes an example, rule, or tradition to be followed.
Led by Jefferson, one of the first political parties in the United States
One who favored ratification of the Constitution
Alien & Sedition Acts
1798 law that allowed the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute its critics.
Power of the Supreme Court to decide whether the acts of a president or laws passed by Congress are constitutional
Policy of seizing people or property for military or public service
Foreign policy doctrine set forth by President Monroe in 1823 that discouraged European intervention in the Western Hemisphere
member of the nationalist political party formed in 1832 in opposition to the Democrats
The transformation to more technology and less work done by hand. Let to Textiles Mills, factories and such things as interchangeable parts.
Growth of Big Businesses- Cartel's- business agreement with another company
Horizontal integration- owns many companies of the same product
Vertical Integration- Cargnie owned everything from the ground up--everything that makes a product.
Captains of Industry- JP Morgan- Banks
JD Rockefeller- Oil
Andrew Cargnie- Steel
practice of the political party in power giving jobs and appointments to its supporters, rather than to people based on their qualifications.
Indian Removal Act
Act passed by Congress in 1830 that allowed the federal government to negotiate land trades with the Indians in the Southeast
Movement aimed at stopping alcohol abuse and the problems created by it
Frederick Douglass was an incredibly talented writer and orator who escaped slavery and brought the issue of slavery to the attention of people in the 1840s, 50s, and 60s.
Seneca Falls Convention
Held in NY in 1848, the first women's right convention in the US.
the right to vote
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Her movement would support the 15th Amendment. She worked closely with Susan B. Anthony for woman's rights. They are both woman sufferages. She attended the woman's convention which was held at Seneca Falls
Susan B. Anthony
key leader of woman suffrage movement, social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the national woman suffrage association
19th Century doctrine that westward expansion of the US was not only inevitable but a God-Given right
Political policy that permitted the residents of federal territories to decide on whether to enter the union as free or slave slates
1868 constitutional amendment which defined citizenship and guaranteed citizens equal protection under the law
guaranteed voting rights regardless of race or previous condition of servitude
Virginia House of Burgesses
Where most of Patrick Henry's ideas about the Virginia Resolves (which allowed colonial assemblies to have the right to tax the colonists) were accepted. This led to 8 other colonies adapted similar resolves
Separation of Power
Principle that divides power among the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government
Compromise in which each enslaved person would be counted as three fifths of a person for the purposes of legislative representation.
The belief held by some in the late nineteenth century that certain nations and races were superior to others and therefore destined to rule over them.
The desire to promote the welfare of others, expressed especially by the generous donation of money to good causes. Carnegie, Rockefeller and Vanderbilt all established universities, museums, and libraries, believing that such institutions made it possible for the disadvantaged to rise to wealth
The Jungle- Upton Sinclair
Sinclair related the despair of the immigrants working in Chicago's stockyards and revealed the unsanitary conditions of the industry in this publication
Term used for the central and southern Great Plains during the 1930's when the region suffered from drought and dust stroms
Programs and legislation enacted by FDR during the Great Depression to promote economic recovery and social reform
Writers who uncovers and exposes misconduct in politics or business
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 law that prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers
Navajo Code Talkers
Navajo troops played a vital role in the Pacific Island hopping campaign. Using a code based on their own language-which was a mystery to the Japanese-Navajo radio operators sent critical messages from island to island
Sedition Act of 1918
This act made is unlawful to use "disloyal, profane, scurrilous or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, or the military forces. The government used this act to prosecute socialists, political radicals and pacifists.
Policy of granting concessions in order to keep the peace
Europe First Strategy- Allies shared more unified goals, Nazi's=true threat, Axis powers: no coordination of attack (they all have their own individual goals)
Japanese Internment-camps that did not have adequate food or shelter
Pearl Harbor-American military base attached by the Japanese on December 7, 1941
Industrial Strength of North- Textile Miles, steamboats and telegraph
Industrial Strength of South- Cotton Gin
Strengths of North- more access to capital, more factories, more population
Strengths of South- access to cheap labor, western expansion- allowed them to produce more cotton, agriculture was big
Programs implemented by the federal government between 1865 & 1877 to repair damage to the South caused by the Civil War and restore the southern states and reintegrate them into the Union
14th and 15th amendements
Jim Crow Laws-enforced the segregation of the blacks and whites. Limited Southern freedom.
Time for changes in response to industrialization and urbanization
Sherman Anti-Trust Act- First form of attempted big businesses- forbid the use of businesses to interfere with the trade or commerce. The loop hole was that businesses held power which allowed them to grow so large that they controlled the American Government.
Interstate Commerce Act- Established the federal governments right to oversee railroad activities. Required railroads to share and show proof of revenue and fair rate.
Government Reforms -more power to the voters 19th Amendment-gave woman the right to right
Balance of Democrat & Republicans
They gave government jobs based on loyalty
Reason for outbreak of WWI-Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism and Alliances
Reasons the US Entered the War- The Zimmerman Note- proposed an alliance with Mexico, declaring if the US started war on Germany then Mexico should declare war on the US. Germany sinking US ships,
1925 trail of Tennessee schoolteacher for teaching Darwin's Theory of evolution.
Represented the clash between modernism and traditionalism.
The ideology that the common people have the capability and power to have control over the government.
Containment- keep communism where it was
Vietnamization- called for gradual withdrawal of the US troops for the south Vietnamese to take on a more combat role in war. Aim was to end American involvement. Passing the Torch to handle their own conflict
Depression and the New Deal
Relief, Recovery & Reform!
Aimed to address the ederly, poor, unempolyed, created new public works projects, helped the farmers, enacted measure to protect workers rights
Expanded the economic power of the government
Fireside chats- a way for FDR to communicate to the people of America and provide reassurance to the public.
Marshall Plan-American gets economic support for war torn Western Europe. It was necessary to give people money so they did not turn to communism
Truman Doctrine-Politically fighting communism.
It is supplying aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent them to falling towards communism
McCarthyism-MacArthur pushes forces back, wants to invade china, Truman doesn't want to push back into China and MacArthur gets fired because of this China ends the conflict with a stalement at the 38th Parallel
Red Scare-Scare that the American will fall into Communism, Communist working in the government for the enemies.
Star Wars missile defense- its never happened -its a satellite anti missile systems that would protect the US from such missiles
FDR's Four Freedom Speechs
The freedom of expression for everywhere in the world
Religion- Freedom to worship God in your own way
Want economic understanding to create a healthy peacetime
Fear- worldwide reduction of weapons and mechanisms of war
Good Neighbor policy