75 terms

C&T: Membrane Lipids and Proteins

9/5/13
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Phospholipid
Saturated fatty acid
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Omega-3: ALA, EPA, DHA
Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine
The picture shows this phospholipid head group.
Characteristics:
- Major component lipids in E coli Bacterium (70%) and Mitochondrion (25%)
- Neutral charge
Phosphatidyl choline (lecithin)
The picture shows this phospholipid head group.
Characteristics:
- Major component of lipids in ER (40%) and Mitochondrion (39%)
- Neutral
Phosphatidyl serine
The picture shows this phospholipid head group.
Characteristics:
- Minor component of lipids in various parts of the cell - ex. myelin (9%), RBC (7%)
- Negatively charged
Cardiolipin
Special Phospholipid
- highly enriched in inner membrane of mitochondria
Plasmalogen
Special Phospholipid
- Ether linked alkene at C1
- Head groups usually ethanolamine or choline
- Enriched in muscle and nervous tissue and heart
Dipalmitoylphosphatiylcholine (DPPC)
Special Phospholipid
- saturated palmitate at C1/ C2
- Primary lung surfactant in newborns -> insufficient amounts collapses lungs of infants -> infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) - 20% neonatal mortality in West
Phosphatidyl Inositol (PI)
Special Phospholipid
Phospholipase A2
Number 1
Phospholipase A1
Number 2
diglyceride + XP
Number 3 are actors involved in the activation of Protein kinase C pathway
Phospholipase D
Number 4
Sphingosine, Sphingolipids
_________ ----> ________
The addition of a fatty acid and then a polar head group
Phospholipid
Phospholipid or Sphingolipid?
Sphingolipid
Phospholipid or Sphingolipid?
Sphingomyelin, cerebrosides, and gangliosides
These are the three types of sphingolipids.
Cerebrosides and Gangliosides
These sphingolipids are categorized as the glycosphingolipids.
Sphingomyelin
This sphingolipid is defined by a head group of phosphocholine
Cerebrosides
This sphingolipid has one or more uncharged sugars
Gangliosides
This sphingolipid is defined by sugars with negative charge
Glycosphingolipids
These are found on the surface of all plasma membranes of animal cells; important in interactions with surroundings and cell-cell adhesions
Galactocerebrosides
These are most prevalent in neuronal cell membranes of the brain.
Ganglioside GM1
This sphingolipid complex is the receptor for Cholera Toxin in the plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells.
Glycosphingolipids
The A, B, H antigens on the erythrocyte plasma membrane surface in the ABO blood groups are defined by this.
Mental retardation
Inappropriate breakdown of sphingolipids result in sphingolipid storage disease, which often results in this.
Cholesterol
- Major component of plasma membrane - up to 1:1 in relation to phospholipids
Decreases
Cholesterol binds to the surface portion of phospholipids and does this to the permeability and fluidity of membranes
Unsaturated fatty acid
Number 1 is this type of fatty acid, which have a cis-double bond that bends their structure.
Saturated fatty acid
Number 2 is this type of fatty acid, which are most stable in fully extended conformation.
Increased
This is the change in membrane fluidity and disorder due to "kinked" acyl chain. The content of these kinks in membrane phospholipids are critical for fluidity and function of the membrane.
Decreased saturation, decreased tails, decreased cholesterol, increased temperature
Membrane fluidity depends on: (Increased or decreased)
1) Fatty acid chain saturation
2) Fatty acid chain length
3) Cholesterol levels
4) Temperature

This combination of factors would lead to the most fluid membrane possible (list the changes in the order stated above).
Glycolipids
This is the most common lipid (mentioned) in the myelin (28%)
Cholesterol
This is the most common lipid (mentioned) in the RBC plasma membrane
Mitochondrion or ER
If you collect a purified sample has high levels (above 30%) of phophatidylcholine. You could be looking at these parts of the cell.
Sphingomyelin, Glycolipid, Phosphatidylcholine, Cholesterol
Due to asymmetrical distribution of lipids, these are the names of the lipids located on the outside surface of the cell.
Phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol
Due to asymmetrical distribution of lipids, these are the names of the lipids located on the inside surface of the cell.
Cholesterol
This is the name of number 4.
Lateral diffusion
In the fluid mosaic model of biological membranes, this is the action shown by number 1.
Flip-flop
In the fluid mosaic model of biological membranes, this is the action shown by number 2, which rarely occurs without an enzyme.
Rotation
In the fluid mosaic model of biological membranes, this is the action shown by number 3.
Flexion
In the fluid mosaic model of biological membranes, this is the action shown by number 4.
Phosphatidylserine
Located on the outside of the cell, this lipid is important in the immune response. It is responsible for stimulation of apoptosis/ engulfment by macrophages and activates platelets during blood coagulation.
Glycolipids
This lipid is located on the external face of the cell to provide mechanisms for immune recognition and surveillance.
Phosphatidylinositol
This lipid is present on the cytoplasmic face of the PM in order aid in signalling pathways.
Flippase, Floppase, Scramblase, ER Flippase
These enzymes are responsible for catalyzing a flip-flop of phospholipids.
Flippase and Floppase
These enzymes are ATP-dependent.
Lipid Rafts
These characteristics define this form of asymmetry in membranes.
Lateral diffusion
Thinking about the name "Lipid Raft", one could expect this type of movement as defined in the fluid mosaic model.
Myelin
Different membranes have different membrane:protein ratios. Number one represents this type of membrane, which has the highest lipid component.
Inner mitochondrial
Different membranes have different membrane:protein ratios. Number two represents this type of membrane, which has the highest protein component.
Fluid Mosaic Model of Biological Membranes
The picture is a diagram of this model.
communication, sensing, targets, identity, transport, structure
These are the 6 major functions of the membrane proteins.
Integral
This membrane protein can be removed only by agents that disrupt membrane structure, e.g. detergents
Peripheral
This membrane protein can be removed by agents that do not disrupt membrane structure. e.g. ETDA, high salt, base
Motifs
These are involved with protein interactions with the membrane bilayer.
1
Single alpha helix and lipid (fatty acyl) anchor
3
Rolled up beta sheet
4
amphiphilic alpha helix
5
Lipid anchor (acyl or prenyl)
6
Oligosaccharide linker with lipid anchor
7, 8
intra- and extra-cellular peripherally associated proteins (two numbers)
Carbohydrates
These modifications only occur on the protein sequences present on the extracellular surface of the final folded protein.
Glycophorin
This is the major glycoprotein in the RBC membrane.
60-80
Looking at this hydropathy plot, this is the likely amino acid number location of a transmembrane domain. (use a range with interval of 20)
Non-polar
The transmembrane segment should include primarily this type of amino acid.
Outside
glycosylation sites are located in this part of the cell.
Erythrocyte (RBC)
This picture shows the components of this type of cell.
cytoplasmic side
Hereditary spherocytosis is caused by mutations in spectrin alpha chain, spectrin beta chain, ankyrin chain, and band 4.2. Hereditary elliptocytosis has the same mutations except in ankyrin. These proteins are located where in the cell.
Hereditary spherocytosis
The rounded shape of red cells makes it difficult for them to pass through the spleen without rupturing. This disease is characterized by hemolytic anemia, jaundice, gall stones, possible premature death. Treatment is to take out the spleen.
7
Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein with this many transmembrane alpha-helices.
Bacteriorhodopsin (pumps protons out of the cell)
This transmembrane protein found in the kingdom Archaea is known as this name and (has this function). Its function is coupled with ATP synthase.
Cytochrome c oxidase
This transmembrane protein is:
- Located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
- Couples e transfer to proton pumping, with 4 H to intermembrane space/ O2-->H2O
- Has 3 subunits (mostly alpha helices) encoded by the mitochondrial genome
Rolled up beta sheet
PORIN is this type of transmembrane motif.
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