20 terms

Organelles Quiz

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Cell Wall
Structure: Plants = cellulose embedded in a matrix of other carbs and proteins. (made by cellulose synthase). Prokaryote = peptidoglycan. Thicker than cell membranes. Young plants have a primary cell wall (between the primary cell walls of plants is the middle lamella: a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides called pectins - glues cells). Plant matures, strengthens wall either by secreting a hardening substance or adding a secondary cell wall
Function: protects plant cell, maintains its shape, prevents lysing, hold plant up against the force of gravity.
Cells: Plant and Prokaryote
Plasma Membrane
Structure: Bilayer of phospholipids
Function: Holds cytoplasm in, selective barrier
Cells: All cells
Cytoplasm
Structure: Water, salts, enzymes
Function: All organelles in, maintain salinity and pH
Cells: All cells
DNA
Structure: Nitrogenous base, dioxyribose sugar, phosphate
Function: Encode genetic instructions to make proteins
Cells: All cells
Ribosome
Structure: Complexes made of rRNA and proteins
Function: carry out proteins synthesis. Free ribosomes are in cytosol and make proteins for the cell. ER ribosomes are attached to the ER and make proteins for transport.
Cells: All cells but prokaryotes' are floating and eukaryotes are either floating or in the E.R
Nucleus
Structure: enclosed by nuclear envelope - double membrane perforated by pores that are lined by pore complex: protein structure that regulates pore. Nuclear side of the envelope is lined by the nuclear lamina: a netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus, could help organize genetic material. DNA is organized into chromosomes
Function: Holds genetic information
Cells: Eukaryotic
Golgi Apparatus
Structure: flattened membrane sacs called cisternae. Distinct directionality: cis (receiving) and trans (shipping) faces, membranes on either side differ in thickness and composition
Function: Modifies, sorts, packages proteins for secretion or use, directs destination by adding tags (phosphate groups) and adding external molecules to vesicles to recognize docking sites.
Cisternal Maturation Model: cisternae progress foward from cis to trans carrying and modifying as they go
Cells: Eukaryotic
Lysosome
Structure: membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that cells use to digest macromolecules. acidic environment. made by rough ER transferred to golgi
Function: digestion in a cell, autophagy: recycle own organic material from damaged organelles in vesicles that bind to lysosomes. Food vacuoles bind to lysosomes for digestion
Cells: Animal cells
Flagella
Structure: Prokaryotes = flagellin, fixed with rotating base,
Eukaryote = microtubules, connected to centriole, 9 doublets of microtubules with doublet in center, surrounded by membrane, swing
Function: Move entire cell
Cells: Prokaryotes, animals and plants
Mitochondria
Structure: smooth outer membrane, inner membrane with folds called cristae (increase surface area). Divided into two spaces - intermembrane space between outer and inner membrane space and the mitochondrial matrix inside the inner. Matrix contains enzymes, mDNA, and ribosomes. Move around, change shape, fuse and divide. Also form a branched network.
Function: Produce ATP from glucose, powerhouse of cell, makes energy
Cells: Plants and animals, higher concentration in cells that work harder (heart and muscles)
Chloroplasts
Structure: Outer and inner membranes with stacks of membranes inside (thylakoid), near edge of cell to get sunlight, own DNA
Thylakoids: flattened inner-connected sacs inside chloroplasts. In stacks called granum.
Stroma: fluid outside thylakoids, contains cDNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
Can change shape, grow, and divide
Part of a family of organelles called plastids
Function: Convert solar energy to cellular energy and synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water
Animal Cells
No cell wall, round/irregular shape, one or more small vacuoles, centriole, no chloroplasts, cytoplasm, ER, ribosomes, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, lysosomes, nucleus, cilia, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, flagella, DNA
Plant Cells
Cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole, nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, E.R., plasma membrane, DNA, cytoskeleton, peroxisomes, flagella, cytoplasm, no lysosomes, no centrioles, no cilia
Eukaryotic Cells
Flagella made of microtubules, cell wall made of cellulose, vesicles, Golgi apparatus, E.R., nucleus, mitochondria, centriole, centrisome, lysosome, vacuoles, chloroplast, cilia, no capsule, cytoplasm, DNA, plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoskeleton (membrane bound organelles)
Larger because have more organelles (10x larger)
Prokaryotic Cells
Capsule, cell wall made of peptidoglycan, flagella made of flagellin, cytoplasm, DNA, plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoskeleton, no vesicles, no Golgi apparatus, no E.R., no nucleus, no mitochondria, no centriole, no lysosome, no vacuoles, no chloroplasts, no cilia, (no membrane bound organelles)
Nucleoulus
densely stained granules and fibers where rRNA is synthesized and proteins from the cytoplasm are assembled with rRNA to form ribosome subunits
Extracellular Matrix
Structure: glycoproteins and other carb-containing molecules. Mostly collagen: forms strong fibers outside the cell. Collagen fibers embedded in proteoglycan network: small core proteins with many carb chains. Proteoglycan complex: many IMF with a long polysaccharide. Fibronectin: attaches cells to ECM bind to integrins in membrane that span membrane and connect to microfilaments transmit signals from ECM to cytoskeleton
Function: ECM can regulate cell behavior, influence gene activity
Cell Junctions
Plasmodesmata: in plant cells, cytosol passing through connects internal chemical environment - unify most of the plant into one continuum, plasma membranes line that channels and are continuous.
Tight Junctions: animal cells, plasma membrane are tightly bound together by specific proteins, make skin waterproof - prevent extracellular fluid from moving through a layer of cells
Desmosomes: fasten cells into strong sheets, anchored into cytoplasm by intermediate filaments, attach muscle cells
Gap Junctions: cytoplasmic streaming channels from cell to cell -- membrane proteins surround a pore that small molecules can move through
Smooth ER
No ribosomes. It acts as a pathway through the cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic Rediculum
A series of double membranes that loop back and forth between the cell membrane and the nucleus.