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History Exam 3
Terms in this set (56)
Early 1800's brought emerging forms of transportation such as railroads, steam boats, canals, roads, bridges. Helped facilitate movement of people and altered physical land
Transportation revolution as well as textile mills and factories created many jobs, especially for young, unmarried women. Contributed to economic growth.
Water-powered textile mills constructed in Lowell, Massachusetts, that pioneered the extensive use of female laborers. By 1836, the eight mills there employed more than five thousand young women.
Canal covering 350 miles between Albany and Buffalo and linking the port of New York City with the Great Lakes region. The canal turned New York City into the country's premier commercial city.
Theory asserting that states could nullify acts of Congress that exceeded congressional powers.
The ideology that men and women are in separate spheres. Men focus on politics, economy, commerce, and law. While women focus on domestic life, child rearing, housekeeping, and religious education.
Trail of Tears
Forced westward journey of Cherokees from their lands in Georgia to present day Oklahoma. The Cherokees endured a grueling 1,200 mile march overseen by federal troops. Nearly a quarter of the Cherokees died en route.
Term coined by journalist John L. O'Sullivan to justify American expansion. O'Sullivan claimed that it was the nation's "manifest destiny" to transport its values and civilization westward.
Indian Removal Act
Act that directed the mandatory relocation of eastern tribes to territory west of the Mississippi. Indians resisted the controversial act, but in the end were forced to comply.
Became president in 1829. Charismatic, demands absolute loyalty. Democratic party leader. Expands his power as president and enforces the constitution as he interprets it.
Part of spiritual and utopian experiments. A Perfectionist religious communal society in New York.
A way for slaves to escape slavery. A network of houses and other places that abolitionists used to help slaves escape to freedom in the northern states before the Civil War.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Officially entitled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic
Areas in the south where cotton farming developed because of the high demand for cotton.
Could not vote, testify, have guns, hit a white person, be sold. But could own property and marry. Had to carry certificate of freedom at all times
The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Compromise of 1850
Admitted California as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade in Washington D.C. Widely opposed in both the North and South, it did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery which was its original goal.
This decided whether a territory allowed slavery. It created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and made it so that popular sovereignty would decide whether slavery would exist in these new territories.
He wanted to lead a slave revolt across the south. He was opposed by many abolitionists, he expected slaves to flock to him but they did not. He was hailed as a martyr by many abolitionists
The withdrawal from the United States of eleven southern states in 1860 and 1861
Southern notion of Embargoing cotton export in order to bring Britain to their knees. did not work because South overestimated its power, and bumper crops in the 1850's weakened demand for cotton
historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War.
New York Draft Riots
brew of political, ethnic, racial and class problems in Northern society exploded into antidraft protest, more violent in nyc. pissed off by drawing of names under Enrollment Act, mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed streets they hated the idea of being drafted on behalf of blacks
Fugitive Slave Act
passed as part of the Compromise of 1850. It was passed on September 18, 1850 by the United States Congress. This law stated that any slave master can recapture their run away slaves.
40 Acres and a Mule
refers to a promise made in the United States for former enslaved black farmers. It granted each freedmen family forty acres of tillable land on islands and the coast of Georgia. The army had a number of unneeded mules which were also granted to these settlers.
Laws passed by southern states after the Civil War denying ex-slaves the complete civil rights enjoyed by whites and intended to force blacks back to plantations and impoverished lifestyles
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote
Popular is North East costal areas. "Nativists", saw immigrants, especially catholics, as a threat to native born (white) protestant americans.
William Lloyd Garrison
a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer. ... He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, and promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States.
people of territory make their own decision regarding slavery; expected to use constitutional principles
A system of agriculture where a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on land.
A slave, sued for freedom because he lives in a free territory. He initially won the case, but it was appealed to the Supreme Court. The judge determined that blacks were inferior, had no rights and could never be a citizen.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. ... The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
the Republican idealist who pushed for black suffrage during Reconstruction as a principle of black freedom and racial equality
an organized effort to encourage moderation in the consumption of intoxicating liquors or press for complete abstinence.
Southern slaveholders often used biblical passages to justify slavery. Those who defended slavery rose to the challenge set forth by the Abolitionists. The defenders of slavery included economics, history, religion, legality, social good, and even humanitarianism, to further their arguments.
Second Party System
Democrats (Jackson) vs. Whigs (Henry Clay)
Jackson's Democrat Views
Weak national gov, Opposed tyranny of elite, opposes central gov institutions such as national bank
Clay's Whig Views
Strong national gov, party of money power, economic growth required government support such as banks, internal improvements, protective tariffs
a wing of the Republican Party organized around an uncompromising opposition to slavery before and during the Civil War and a vigorous campaign to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction.
Declared free for only those slaves still in areas that are in rebellion against USA. Did not free any slaves in Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, parts of Tennessee, Virginia, and other states
Ku Klux Klan
a secret hate group in the southern U.S., active for several years after the Civil War, which aimed to suppress the newly acquired rights of black people and to oppose carpetbaggers from the North, and which was responsible for many lawless and violent proceedings.
Thousands of slaves flee towards union lines. Technically must be returned according to Fugitive Slave Law, but instead are kept in union lines as contrabands of war
was an enslaved African American who led a rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia
Slave Power Conspiracy
was the perceived political power in the U.S. federal government held by slave owners during the 1840s and 1850s, prior to the Civil War.
The Reconstruction amendments were important in implementing the Reconstruction of the American South after the war. 13th(abolished slavery), 14th(citizenship rights & equal protection), 15th(right to vote) amendments.
Charles Grandison Finney
Charles Grandison Finney was an American Presbyterian minister and leader in the Second Great Awakening in the United States. He has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism
Never passed, wants to ban slavery from all territories gained from war with Mexico.
Government military agency that oversaw the efforts to rebuild the south. Dealing with labor issues, wage issues, negotiating contracts between free african americans and land owners who needed workers. Maintaining rights of free people.
Free Soil/Free Labor
Wanted to preserve settlement of western lands for free, white men. Not comfortable with slavery but no desire to end it. Most whites are deeply racist and do not want African Americans to live anywhere near them.
White southern Democrats who aimed to put an end to Reconstruction and biracial governments and restore the Democratic Party to power in the South.
After northern voters rejected Johnson's policies in the elections in late 1866, Republicans in Congress took firm hold of Reconstruction in the South.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
An American abolitionist and author. She came from the Beecher family, a famous religious family, and is best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, and writer. After escaping from slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his antislavery writings.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
American suffragist, social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. She helped organize the world's first women's rights convention and formed the National Women's Loyal League with Susan B. Anthony
Compromise of 1877
a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in the United States government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era. Through the Compromise, Republican Hayes was awarded the White House
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