40 terms

Conceptual Physics: NEWTON'S THREE LAWS

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Equilibrium
In general, a state of balance where Fnet = 0
Force
Any influence that tends to accelerate an object. A push or a pull; measured in Newtons.
Friction
The force that acts to resist the relative motion (or attempted motion) of objects or materials that are in contact. A force that works against the motion of an object
Kilogram
The fundamental SI unit of Mass.
Mass
A measure of an object's inertia. Also, a measure of the amount of matter in an object. Depends only on the amount of and kind of particles that compose an object - not on its location.
Newton
SI Unit of Force.
Normal Force
For an object at rest, it is the upward force that balances the weight of the object at rest. Also called a Support Force
Volume
The quantity of space an object occupies
Newton's Second Law
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, it in the direction of the net force and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. In other words... F=ma
Free Fall
Motion under the influence of gravitational pull only
Terminal Speed/Velocity
The speed at which the acceleration of a falling object terminates because air resistance balances its weight.
Acceleration
Change in velocity divided by the time it takes for the change to occur
Inverse Proportion
a relation between two quantities such that one increases in proportion as the other decreases.
Direct Proportion
A relationship between two quantities in which one increases as the other increases
Air Resistance
frictional force air exerts on a moving object; acts opposite in direction to the object's motion.
Depends on two things: speed and frontal surface area
Net Force
The sum of all forces acting on an object. It is the net force that accelerates a mass (in the direction of the net force).
SCALAR QUANTITIY
A quantity in physics, such as mass, volume, and time that can be completely specified by its magnitude and has no direction
VECTOR
An arrow whose length represents the magnitude of a quantity and whose direction represents the directions of the quantity
NEWTON'S THIRD LAW
Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.
ACTION FORCES
the forces described in Newton's Third Law, that are equal and opposite to the Reaction Forces.
REACTION FORCES
the forces described in Newton's Third Law, that are equal and opposite to the Action Forces.
FORCE PAIR
The combined Action-Reaction forces that interact with each other, as described in Newton's Third Law
INTERACTION
Mutual action between objects where each object exerts an equal and opposite force on the other.
Inertia
The property of things to resist changes in motion
Newton's First Law of Motion
Every object continues in a state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted upon by an a non-zero net force
Mechanical equilibrium
The state of an object or system of objects for which there are no changes in motion (b/c there are no net forces)
Equilibrium Rule
For any object or system of objects in equilibrium, the sum of the forces acting equals zero. ( ΣF = 0 )
Applied Force
The force exerted "onto" an object
Friction (Force)
A force, which acts in the opposite direction of the applied force, that acts to resist the relative motion of objects in contact.
Support Force
An upward force that balances the weight of an object on a surface
Balanced Forces
All forces, when added, equal zero. Another way to say No Net Force
Tension Forces
The "stretching force" that acts upward on an object, and is usually seen in ropes, chains, etc.
Vector Quantity
Any quantity that is described by magnitude and direction. (i.e. Force, velocity...)
Headwind
A wind/air resistance that works as friction against the motion of an object. It serves to reduce the force, velocity, etc of the object
Tailwind
A "wind" that works as as an additional applied force that works to adds to the motion of an object. It serves to increase the force, velocity, etc of the object
Static Equilibrium
A state of motion that describes a situation where an object is at rest and all of its forces are balanced
Dynamic Equilibrium
A state of motion that describes a situation where an object is moving and all of its forces are balanced
Resultant
The sum of two or more vectors
Components
the vectors that when added together yield a resultant
weight
A measure of the force of gravity on an object's mass