39 terms

This set covers all bold terms and important concepts in Abeka Physics Chapter 3: "The Liquid State" (pages 32-48).

hydrologic system

term for the water cycle

surface tension

term for a liquid's resistance to increase its surface area

adhesion

term for attraction between different kinds of molecules

cohesion

term for attraction between the same kinds of molecules

capillary tubes

tubes thin enough to show the effect of a higher final level of water

capillarity

term for the tendency of a liquid to rise in a narrow tube

meniscus

a curved surface of water inside a tube

concave

Since the edges of water reach outward in a glass tube, the meniscus is ______.

convex

Since the edges of mercury reach inward in a glass tube, the meniscus is ______.

hydrostatics

term for the study of liquids at rest

force

any push or pull on an object

normal

The force exerted by a liquid on a surface is always ____, or perpendicular, to the surface.

pressure

term for the amount of force brought to bear on a unit area

P = F / A and P = pgh

formulas for pressure

Fw = pvg

formula for the force of weight

p = m/v

formula for density

V = Ah

formula for the volume of a cylinder

F = apgh and F = AP

formulas for force on the bottom of a container

F = 1/2 Apgh

formula for force on the wall of a container

P = 1/2 pgh

formula for pressure on the wall of a container

law of liquid pressure

name for the equation P = pgh

water head

term for the distance below the highest level of water in a connected system, represented by "h"

Pascal's principle

principle that states that the pressure applied to any surface of a confined liquid is transmitted equally in every direction throughout the liquid

hydraulic device

term for any device that uses a confined liquid to multiply force

buoyant force

term for the difference between downward force and upward force on an object in a liquid

Archimedes' principle

principle that states that the buoyant force acting on a body submerged in a liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by that body

hydrodynamics

term for the study of liquids in motion

viscosity

term for a liquid's resistance to flow because of molecular attraction

principle of viscosity

term for the inverse relationship between flow rate and viscosity

poise

the units by which viscosity is measured

cavitation

term for the production of tiny vapor bubbbles within a real liquid as it flows through a pipe

laminar flow

term for an ideal liquid's tendency to flow in straight lines throughout the cross-sectional area

eddy currents

term for the currents that swirl against the flow of a real liquid due to friction between the liquid and the pipe

volume flow rate

measures the total volume of a liquid flowing past a point in one second, in m^3/s

principle of continuity

principle that states that the volume flow rate at any two points in a pipe must be constant

A1V1 = A2V2

formula for the principle of continutity

lateral pressure

term for the pressure at the walls of a channel, or on any surface in contact with a moving liquid

decreases

As lateral pressure increases, velocity squared _____.

Bernoulli's principle

term for the inverse relationship between lateral pressure and velocity squared