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Chapter 1: What is Community Psychology
Terms in this set (46)
the study of human behavior in its multiple contexts (ecological, historical, cultural, sociopolitical); concerns the relationships of the individual to communities and society; focuses on the transactions between individuals and society (bidirectional relationship, each influences the other); central to the field is the insistence on examining phenomena at multiple levels of analysis
Application of community psychology
to create person-environment transactions that prevent dysfunction and distress, facilitate empowerment and social justice, and promote well being (personal, relational, collective)
Community psychology modus operandi
through collaborative research and action, community psychologists seek to understand and enhance quality of life for individuals, community, and society
Shift in perspective with community psychology
community psychology emphasizes the connection between individuals and environments..not either alone, where as psychology emphasizes the individuals and sociology emphasizes society
Context minimization error
denotes ignoring or discounting the importance of ocntexts in an individual's life; refers to contexts and forces that include those beyond the immediate situation; lead to psychological theories and research findings that are flawed or that hold true only in limited circumstances
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency of observers watching an actor to overestimate the importance of actor's individual characteristics, and underestimate the importance of situational factors
the encapsulating environments within which an individual lives: family, friendship network, peer group, neighborhood, workplace, school, religious or community organization, locality, cultural heritage and norms, gender roles, social and economic forces
Example of fundamental attribution error
when we see someone trip on the sidewalk, we often think, "How awkward," or wonder if the person has been drinking; we seldome look to see if the sidewalk is flawed
altering, rearranging, or substituting individuals in an attempt to solve a problem; limited as problem often re-emerges
altering role relationships among individuals in a setting and attending to social systems and structures; can address root causes of a problem
Example of second-order change
instead of rigid lines of expertise between mental health professionals and "patients", it involves finding ways that person with disorders may help each other in self-help groups
one who is actively involved in community processes while also attempting to understand and explain them
Community psychology and multiple levels of analysis
the individual exists within layers of interdependent social and environmental contexts (human behavior does not exist in a vacuum, we can't isolate behavior from the conditions in which it occurs, in order to understand individual behavior we must understand the contexts in which it exists, Bronfenbrenner's nesting doll metaphor
Bronfenbrenner's nesting doll metaphor diagram
illustrates the ecological levels of analysis for community psychology; shows proximal and distal systems; boundaries between each level are more gradual than the diagram suggests
systems closest to the individual and involving the most face-to-face contact; are closer to the center of Bronfenbrenner's nesting doll metaphor diagram
systems are less immediate to the person yet have broad effects; are toward the outside of the Bronfenbrenner's nesting doll metaphor diagram
Ecological levels of analysis
the embeddedness of the individual in a complex ecological system with multiple layers; five levels at which individual and community problems can be understood, studied and changed: individual, microsystem, organization, locality/community, macrosystem
the individual person and their relationships to the environments in their lives; analysis focuses on how these relationships are expressed in individual behaviors, values, life transitions, stress, coping, and the individual outcomes of community problems
Examples on the individual LOA
personal beliefs, childhood history, emotional intelligence, marriage, graduation, loss of a loved one, depression, addiction, teen pregnancy
sets of individuals; small group (small enough for face-to-face interactions) environments in which the individual engages in direct, personal interactions with others over time
Examples on the microsystem LOA
family, friends, classroom, club, staff, team
a physical place and the enduring set of relationships among individuals that may be associated with the place; the term is applied to microsystems and to organizations
sets of microsystems that for a larger whole; individuals may identify with an organization but their involvement and participation is at the level of the microsystem
Examples of organizational LOA
university, church, corporation, hospital, school
sets of organizations in a common geographic area; community action often involves organizations working togehter in coalitions to bring about change in a community
Examples of locality/community LOA
neighborhood, small town, rural area, city
sets of communities and/or organizations forming broad and diverse bodies of influence; includes the population level of analysis defined by a demographic category, as well as the institutional level of analysis; forms the context within which the other levels function; exercise influence through policies, laws, judicial decisions, customs, ideologies, belief systems, values
Examples on macrosystem LOA
nations, governmental and economic institutions, culture, gender, socioeconomic status groups, religion, "isms"
Sevon core values of community psychology
guide the priorities, emphases, research questions, hypotheses, and interventions in community psychology; include: individual wellness, sense of community, social justice, citizen participation, collaboration and community strengths, respect for human diversity, and empirical grounding
Emory Cowen; values the attainment of optimum health and wellness, not just the absence of disease and distress (psychological well-being, healthy identity development, positive interpersonal relationships, pursuit of fulfilment and spiritual meaning, reaching highest personal potential)
Focuses of "individual wellness"
development of competencies and coping skills, social support and self-help groups, interventions outside health care settings, prevention of maladaptive behavior
the health of communities and societies
Sense of community
Seymour Sarason and David Chavis; values the significance of connections with others, sense of belongingness and interdependence as essential to mental health
Focuses of "sense of community"
helping people connect with communities, building and strengthening communities, building connections within and between communities
George Albee and William Ryan; values the fair and equitable allocation of resources, opportunities, and power; opposed to "isms" and exclusion based on race, gender, sexual orientation...
Focuses of "social justice"
social, political and economic factors that impact individuals; avoiding exploitation; ethnic psychologies, feminist psychology, liberation psychology
concerns the allocation of resources (e.g. money, access to good-quality health services or education) among members of a population
concerns whether processes of collective decision making include fair representation of citizen
Julian Rappaport; values self-determination and the ability of a community to define itself, its problems and issues, and to participate in solutions
Focuses of "citizen participaton/empowerment"
peaceful, respectful, collaborative decision-making processes; empowering individuals and communities; organizing grassroots citizen groups, neighborhood groups, coalitions of groups
Collaboration and community strenghts
values the strenghts and knowledge of community members as collaborators in research and action efforts; emphasizes how the community psychologist does his/her work
Focuses of "collaboration and community strengths"
identifying community resources and assets; recognizing and respecting the wisdom, experience, and expertise that exists in a community; interacting in a non-condescending manner; carefully nurturing the relationship between the psychologist and the community; bringing humility to one's work
Respect for diversity
Roderick Watts and Ed Trickett; values the variations within and between communities, as well as the diverse social identities and beliefs that exist in a societ; values the acceptance of diverse groups as equals where difference does not suggest deviance or pathology
Focuses of "respect for diversity"
diversity as a strength; examining diverse cultures for traditions that promote health; understanding diverse groups and cultures on their own terms; seeking understanding of differences and ways to bridge them
values the interdependence and integration of systematic research and planful action
Focuses of "empirical grounding"
role as participant-conceptualizer; multiple research methods (qualitative as well as quantitative); research that meets and informs community needs; interdisciplinary collaboration
This set is often in folders with...
Chapter 2: How Has Community Psychology Developed
Chapter 5: Understanding Individuals Within Enviro…
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