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Hesi A2 - Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (108)
the valve responsible for preventing the backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium
one of a pair of nerves that arises from cervical spinal roots and passes down the thorax to innervate the diaphragm and control breathing
Superior vena cava
returns blood to the heart, draining the head, neck and upper torso
Which two bones make up the lower leg structure?
Fibula & tibia
controls basic emotions and drives
Muscle responsible for the adduction of the shoulder.
Shoulder blade also categorized as a flat bone (A flat bone is defined as a bone that provides muscular attachment and also serves to protect the body's vital organs or sensitive areas.)
Section of the human spine that contains 5 vertebrae
Lumbar, the lower region of the back, numbered L1-L5
The following would be a direct result of lipid depletion in the human body
the decrease in the amount of estrogen produced
Fats are broken down in the small intestine using which enzyme(s)?
Fats also known as lipids are broken down using lipase produced by the pancreas and bile produced by the liver but transferred to the small intestine through the bile duct.
The opening in the skull that is superior to the atlas is known as the?
The engulfing of large particles into the cell is referred to as?
This enzyme begins the process of carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
Electrical impulses called "action potentials" move along the axon of a neuron
Which sequence outlines the correct flow of blood through the heart?
Blood enters the heart on the right side, collecting in the right atrium. After moving through the right ventricle, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonary artery to travel to the lungs to release carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen. The blood returns to the left side of the heart, through the pulmonary vein, going to the left atrium, then through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. Lastly, the blood leaves the heart through the aorta.
The autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis is characterized by the degradation of what?
Myelin Sheath, Multiple sclerosis targets the myelin sheath along the axon. The myelin sheath is degraded leading to slower neuron impulses as the action potential is unable to jump between the Nodes of Ranvier.
In order for the actin filaments to bind to the myosin head, what must occur first?
Calcium ions must bind to troponin molecules.
What area(s) of the brain are the most affected if a person is unable to understand written or verbal speech?
Weirnecke's area, the site for language comprehension
What area of the eye has the most acute vision and is comprised only of cones?
primary function of melatonin?
To regulate sleep/wake cycles
What type of joint is present in the elbow?
What part of the ear is involved in hearing?
What kind of nutrients are in the bones?
calcium and phosphorus
If a patient injures the ulnar nerve, where would the patient feel pain?
What organ absorbs nutrients?
When does ossification begin?
What forms b-lymphocytes?
-controls the release of 8 major hormones by the pituitary gland
-controls body temperature
-control of food and water intake, hunger and thirst
Sebaceous glands secrete:
Eccrine glands secrete:
Name a part of the upper respiratory tract
What cell transports oxygen?
erythrocytes (red blood cells)
What number of chromosomes does meiosis end with?
-reflexes such as vomiting, sneezing, and coughing
any of the minute tubes that form a network in bone and contain blood vessels
Which organ is the most hollow?
-The solid organs are the liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries and uterus.
-The hollow organs are the stomach, small intestines, colon, gallbladder, bile ducts, fallopian tubes, ureters and urinary bladder.
What causes you to shiver when you are cold?
When the core body temperature drops, the shivering reflex is triggered to maintain homeostasis.
he process by which a cell engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome
-regulation of exchange w/ the environment
types of tissues
epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle
muscle tissue types
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
secrete products into ducts
phagocytic "eat" dead cells
connective tissue types
proper, cartilage, bone, blood
connective tissue proper
structure that prevents food from entering the airway
What substance makes up the pads that provide support between the vertebrae?
How many different types of tissue are there in the human body?
outermost layer of the skin
Which hormone stimulates milk production in the breasts during lactation?
Which of the following blood structures has the lowest blood pressure?
What part of the brain interprets sensory information?
What protein is produced by cartilage?
Which component of the nervous system is responsible for lowering the heart rate?
parasympathetic nervous system
Which type of substance breaks down to form urea?
What is the name of the joint that can move in only two directions?
In which of the following muscle types are the filaments arranged in a disorderly manner?
How much air does an adult inhale in an average breath?
Which type of cell secretes antibodies?
Which force motivates filtration in the kidneys?
Which of the following hormones decreases the concentration of blood glucose?
Which structure controls the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus?
How much of a female's blood volume is composed of red blood cells?
Which type of cholesterol is to be considered to be the best for health?
Where are the vocal cords located?
Where does gas exchange occur in the human body?
Which structure of the nervous system carries action potential in the direction of synapse?
Where is the parathyroid gland located?
What is the name of the process in the lungs by which oxygen is transported from the air to the blood?
Which muscle is responsible for the adduction of the shoulder?
Electrical impulses called "action potentials" move along the axon of a neuron by
What is the main function of calcitonin?
Decreasing the calcium concentration in the blood
During exhalation, the diaphragm does which of the following?
Relaxes and lifts
How many bones are in the skull?
How many organ systems are in the human body
the whole passage along which food passes through the body from mouth to anus. It includes the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
what is the longest muscle in the body?
connects bone to bone
connects muscle to bone
the movement of a limb or other part away from the midline of the body, or from another part
Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
Which of the following statements is anatomically correct?
The hip is proximal to the knee
middle region (shaft) of the humerus
sequence of the vertical column
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx
travels from a sense receptor towards the spinal cord
What does the parathyroid hormone regulate?
Bile is secreted into which organ?
stimulates the development of endometrium
responsible for muscle contraction
basic unit of life
What area of the body would have a thick stratum corneum?
heel of the foot
What are the layers of the epidermis?
Come let's get sun burned!
regulates fluid level in body
Leukocyte (WBC) functions
monocytes - become macrophages
lymphocytes - important in immune response
neutrophils - phagocytize miccroganisms
basophils - least common
The heart has an intrinsic beat that is initiated by?
sinoatrial (SA) node
exchanges take place between blood and cells of the body
semifluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach
conserves sodium in the body
all nutrients that enter the hepatic portal vein are routed where for decontamination?
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