24 terms

US History: Unit 8 Vocabulary - Progressive Era

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Terms in this set (...)

Muckrackers
Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Muckracker journalist and the book he wrote about the horrors in meatpacking plants causing diseases and death
Meat Inspection Act
1906: President Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act which called for strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers and created the program of federal meat inspection
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906: the Pure Food and Drug Act halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines
Ida Tarbell's History of Standard Oil
A monthly article describing the company owned by Rockefeller's cutthroat (brutal) methods of eliminating competition
Jane Addams
* Reformer who helped the urban poor
* Co-founded the Hull House in Chicago, a settlement house that provided assistance to the poor, especially immigrants
Hull House/Settlement Houses
* Hull House: settlement house in Chicago co-founded by Jane Addams
* Settlement House: community centers in poor neighborhoods that provided assistance to the poor, especially immigrants
Social Gospel Movement
An early reform program that preached salvation through service to the poor
Dubois v. Washington
I. W.E.B. Dubois:
* 1st African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard
* founded the Niagara Movement
* insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that the African- American community would have well-educated leaders
* Believed in the most "talented tenth" of the community achieving immediate inclusion into the mainstream American life.
* "All men are created equal"

II. Booker T. Washington:
* believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society
* Headed the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University)
* gradual approach to racial equality
Plessy v. Ferguson
Established "separate but equal"
NAACP
* National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
* founded by DuBois
* demanded racial equality
Initiative
A bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers
Referendum
Voters (rather than lawmakers) accept or reject the initiative
Recall
Enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term
16th Amendment
Federal Income tax
17th Amendment
Direct election of senators
18th Amendment
Prohibition - alcohol is not allowed
19th Amendment
Women's suffrage - giving the right to vote to women
Theodore Roosevelt
* VP under McKinley who was assassinated, so took over as president
* Believed a strong federal government was needed for a rich and complex industrial society to exist
Square Deal
Roosevelt's program of progressive reforms to see that common people received what they deserved
Conservation
* Roosevelt began the 1st national environmental conservation program
* The government protected 195 million acres as off limits to businesses
* The Reclamation Service placed natural resources (oil, trees, coal) under federal protection
Clayton Antitrust Act
* Goal was to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act prohibiting corporations from acquiring stock of another if doing so would create a monopoly. If a company violated the law, its officers would be prosecuted
* Labor unions and farm organizations had a right to exist and would no longer be subject to antitrust laws; strikes and boycotts became legal
Federal Reserve
* Decentralized private banking system under federal control
* 12 separate districts, each with a regional central bank
* Still serves as nation's banking system
Woodrow Wilson
* Won the electoral vote but not popular vote
* Supported a stronger government role in economic affairs - small business and free market competition and characterized all business monopolies as evil
* More freedom for average citizens
* Broke up trusts and expanded government's role in social reform
* Weak on civil rights
* WWI president

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