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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
UIL Social Studies 2017-2018 (5th and 6th)
Terms in this set (187)
The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere was written by-
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
People who are sent to a meeting to speak for a larger group of people.
The French and Indian War
A war between Great Britain and France in the 1750s over which country would control the new world. France had many indians fighting on their side. Great Britain won.
Causes of the American Revolution- the Stamp Act
A special tax just for American colonists to help Great Britain pay for the French and Indian War. It required people in America to buy a special stamp to put on all printed paper. For example: newspapers, marriage licenses, and even decks of playing cards.
'No Taxation without Representation'
The people in the colonies had no representatives in the British Parliament so they never got to vote on any of Britain's laws. The colonists decided they didn't want to pay taxes unless they had a say in government.
Causes of the American Revolution- the Townsend Acts
Taxes on glass, paint, paper, lead, and tea. Very unpopular with the American colonists, they eventually stopped buying the British-made goods and created their own.
Sons of Liberty
A group of colonists who met to discuss their unhappiness with Great Britain. Helped organize boycotts of British goods and protested in the streets.
stop buying or using something as a means of protest
Fight between Boston colonists and British soldiers (redcoats) caused by tension created when 4,000 British soldiers were housed in Boston.
Boston Tea Party
Colonists dressed as Indians went aboard a British merchant ship and dumped tea into the Harbor to protest the British tax on tea.
King George III
King of Great Britain and Ireland during the American Revolution.
Harsh laws imposed on Boston after the Boston Tea Party including shutting down the Harbor. This caused many Bostonians to be out of work and other colonies to feel sorry for Boston and band together against Great Britain to help Boston.
First Continental Congress
A meeting of delegates from the colonies held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1774 to discuss their complaints with Great Britain in a document called the Declaration of Rights and Grievances.
People who are loyal to a country and receive protection from it in return.
A group of people that makes the laws in Great Britain.
To fight against of object to something.
Armies made up of ordinary people who are not trained or paid to be soldiers.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
British troops sent to confiscate, or take, weapons hidden in Lexington, Massachusetts where fired upon and eventually driven back by the militia group waiting there. This first battle of the American Revolution was called the 'shot heard 'round the world' by Ralph Waldo Emerson meaning that revolution was in the air and that the whole world would soon be affected by the events happening in the colonies. The skirmish at Lexington left eight colonists dead. The British met more Patriot fighters at the North Bridge in Concord and people were killed on both sides.
Common Sense (early 1776)
A 48 page pamphlet, or booklet, written by Thomas Paine which stated that governments led by kings had many problems and that it didn't make sense for the colonies to be led by a king thousands of miles away.
-It helped convince the colonists to turn against British rule.
-Paine did not say he wrote it, simple "Written by and Englishman".
-Written in a way that the common people could understand, it did not have much affect on congress but it did have a great affect on bringing the topic of independence out into the open for public discussion.
A colonial lawyer who gave a famous "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech in Virginia.
Declaration of Independence Committee
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declaration of Independence
Purpose of the Declaration of Indepencence
To describe what makes a good government, to explain why King George III had not done a good job, and to announce that the colonists were declaring their freedom from Great Britain.
"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
Natural rights granted to all people in the Declaration of Independence.
July 4, 1776
Date the Declaration of Independence was ratified, or made into an official document.
A formal announcement.
An official paper.
A person who betrays their country.
commander of the Continental Army
The Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (July 6, 1775)
A document issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 6, 1775, to explain why the Thirteen Colonies had taken up arms in what had become the American Revolutionary War. Written by John Dickinson and Thomas Jefferson.
Mayflower Compact- representative government in European colonies
Created when the pilgrims landed at Plymouth in 1620, an agreement to form their own government and obey its laws. Everyone had to sign the compact before going onto the new land.*This was the first written example of democracy. It also used majority rule.
A monarchy is a country that is ruled by a monarch, and monarchy is this system or form of government. A monarch, such as a king or queen, rules a kingdom or empire. In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch's power is limited by a constitution. But in an absolute monarchy, the monarch has unlimited power.
Virginia House of Burgesses- representative government in the colonies
The first law-making body anywhere in the colonies. It first met on July 30, 1619, at a church in Jamestown, Virginia.
The Frames of Government
An important example of democracy in the colonies, William Penn's Frames of Government written in 1682, was a constitution for his Pennsylvania colony.
Headed by the president. The president carries out federal laws and recommends new ones, directs national defense and foreign policy, and performs ceremonial duties. Powers include directing government, commanding the Armed Forces, dealing with international powers, acting as chief law enforcement officer, and vetoing laws.
Headed by Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. The main task of these two bodies is to make the laws. Its powers include passing laws, originating spending bills (House), impeaching officials (Senate), and approving treaties (Senate).
Headed by the Supreme Court. Its powers include interpreting the Constitution, reviewing laws, and deciding cases involving states' rights.
Industries of the Southern Colonies
Tobacco, cotton, rice, indigo (dye), lumber, furs, farm products
Industries of the Middle Colonies
Corn and wheat and livestock including beef and pork. Other industries included the production of iron ore, lumber, coal, textiles, furs and shipbuilding
Industries of the New England Colonies
: Fish, whale products, ships, timber products, furs, maple syrup, copper, livestock products, horses, rum, whiskey and beer
Typically based on bartering, trading, and farming. The economy is largely determined by how things have been done in the past with little change. People in traditional economies tend to do the same jobs as their parents. Think 'old world'
(sometimes called a "free market") is one based on supply and demand. Consumers are free to buy whatever product they want. Companies can make whatever product they want. There is little government intervention allowing the economy to sort itself out through competition. Think USA
command or planned economy
A command economy is one where the government closely controls the economy. The government determines what goods are manufactured, the price they will be sold, and who gets the profits. The government owns many of the major industries. Think communism
A combination of a market and a command economy. Some industries are owned and controlled by the government, while other industries are allowed to be determined by the market. Mixed economies vary in how much control and regulations the government has.
Primary Industry (agricultural)
Taking raw materials from the land or sea. For example: oil, iron ore, timber, fish, mining, quarrying, fishing, forestry, and farming
Secondary Industry (manufacturing/retail)
Involve the manufacture, or building of raw materials into another product by manual labour or machines.
Secondary industries often use assembly lines (for example: a car factory).
Tertiary Industry (service)
Do not produce a raw material nor make a product, instead they provide services to other people and industries. They can include doctors, dentists, garbage collectors and banks.
Quaternary Industry (technology)
Involve the use of high tech industries.
People who work for these companies are often highly qualified within their field of work. Research and development companies are the most common types of businesses in this sector.
Political Institutions in China
In China, this is the Communist Party of China, sometimes just called the Party. The Party controls the Chinese government, including the National People's Congress, the legislative body of China and its most powerful branch of government.
Government in India
Like the US, India's union government is mainly composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, however all powers are given by the Constitution in Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court. The President of India is the Head of State and the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces while the elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive (of the executive branch) and is responsible for running the union government.
Which of the thirteen colonies was not represented in the First Continental Congress?
Articles of Confederation (November, 15, 1777)
The first constitution of the United States. Signed by all 13 colonies, this loose set of laws gave very little power to the federal government, instead reserving most powers for the states making it very difficult to get things done.
-The first draft was formally termed the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
-Ratified on March 1, 1781.
-It was repealed at the Constitutional Convention and replaced with the United States Constitution .
A legal plan for government in the United States. It divided the Congress into two parts: the House of Representatives and the Senate. The Constitution stated that the number of representatives elected to the House would be determined by that state's population, whereas every state elects only two representatives to the Senate.
Plymouth Bay Colony
Founded by Pilgrims who came over from England on the Mayflower in 1620. They arrived in North America just before the start of winter and were not prepared for the cold winter and lack of food. Half of the colonists died that first winter.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Founded in 1629, the Puritans landed in North America with more food and with help from the Wampanoag Indians they survived the first winter and thrived.
First set of laws in New England. It said that all members of the colony would accept the rule of the majority. It also stated that laws must be fair to everyone.
the Corn Belt
The Corn Belt is a region of the Midwestern United States where corn has, since the 1850s, been the predominant crop. The region includes Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, southern Michigan, western Ohio, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, southern Minnesota and parts of Missouri. The region is characterized by level land, deep fertile soils and a high organic soil concentration.
Causes of the Texas Revolution- Law of April 6th, 1830
A law that greatly angered the settlers in Texas, it ended immigration to Texas from the United States, limited border crossing between Texas and the United states, and ended slavery in Texas.
Intolerable Acts- Boston Port Act
Closed the port in Boston so that ho ships were allowed in or out until the cost of the tea destroyed at the Boston Tea Party was repaid.
Intolerable Acts- Massachusetts Government Act
Limited colonists to one town meeting per year without the governor's prior approval. King's officials could not choose juries for trials.
Intolerable Acts- Administration of Justice Act
Required customs officers and other officials accused of a major crime to be tried in Britain or Canada instead of in the colonies. Called the "Murder Act" by George Washington because it allowed British officials to escape punishment for crimes.
Intolerable Acts- Quartering Act
Allowed the governor of a colony to house British soldiers in unoccupied building when appropriate quarters were not available.
Results of the Intolerable Acts
1. Greatly angered the colonists because they forced the colonies to do what the British wanted.
2. Encouraged the Patriot Movement, or the actions of people who wanted to rebel.
Details of the First Continental Congress(September 1774)
-Representatives wanted the Intolerable Acts cancelled.
-Each colony needed to start training a militia, or volunteer army, for defense against the British.
-In September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies, all the British colonies except Georgia, met in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia to talk about sending a written complaint to King George.
-55 members attended, including John Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington, and Samuel Adams.
Plan of Union
One of the plans purposed at the First Continental Congress by Joseph Galloway.
Suffolk Country Resolves
One of the plans purposed at the First Continental Congress by Paul Revere.
Declaration of Rights and Resolves
Plan adopted by the Continental Congress drafted by John Adams.
Created at the First Continental Congress; it ordered a complete ban on all British goods. Violators would sometimes be tarred and feathered.
Established by the Continental Congress, later became the US Army.
British response to the First Continental Congress
-Colonists declared to be in rebellion by the King, and Massachusetts was in a state of rebellion by Parliament.
-Parliament in London ordered the prohibition of the upcoming meeting of the Second Continental Congress.
-British troops were sent to the colonies under the commands of generals, William Howe, Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne.
Second Continental Congress(July 1775)
-Members of all 13 colonies were in attendance at the Sate House in Phillidelphia including: John Hancock, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson.
-Middle colonies' delegates did not agree with the New England Colonies' delegates.
-Colonists decided they needed a military defense plan.
-The Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (July 6, 1775) was a peace compromise offered to King George and written by Thomas Jefferson and John Dickinson.
-Congress approved the Olive Branch Petition.
-Created a navy and began a postal system headed by Benjamin Franklin.
-Tried to form military alliances with other countries.
Olive Branch Petition (June 1775)
A letter to King George written by John Dickinson, it stated that the Americans were loyal to the king and begged him to make Parliament treat the colonists fairly.
Reaction to Olive Branch Petition
-King George refused to accept the Petition.
-Fighting between Britain and colonists got worse.
Colonist reactions to Olive Branch Petition
-Many colonists thought breaking ties with England would make their lives worse and many educated colonists knew how complicated running a country would be.
-Many business owners depended on England for their trade.
-A break with England would hurt the middle and upper-class colonists the most.
Prohibitory Act (early 1776)
-Passed by Parliament as a punishment to the colonies.
-Prohibited all trading with the colonies.
-Goal was to hurt the American economy.
-Angered the colonists even more.
Actions of Continental Congress in summer of 1776
-Selected Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman to prepare a formal declaration, or statement.
-Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write a first draft which took him two weeks.
Lee Resolution (July 2, 1776)
Also called the Resolution of Independence, was passed to declare America's independence, was amended two days later because Congress felt the document should justify and explain American independence in a formal way. Was replaced by the Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson on July 4, 1776.
Battles of the American Revolution-the Siege of Boston
April 19, 1775-March 17, 1776- Occurring just after the battle of Concord, the militia from nearby towns became the Continental Army under George Washington.
Battles of the American Revolution- the Battle of Bunker Hill
June 17, 1775- Most of the battle was fought at nearby Breed's Hill. The colonists stood up to the British but they still captured the Charlestown Peninsula. Casualties, or the number of dead, was high on both sides.
Battles of the American Revolution- Fortification of Dorchester Heights
March 4, 1776- This area overlooked the British navy in the port. The colonists seriously fortified, or build up, the are with munitions from Fort Ticonderoga and ultimately, bad weather caused the British to withdraw. The Patriots regained control of Boston.
Battles of the American Revolution- Battle of Fort Ticonderoga
May 10, 1775-
-This fort was a supply and communications link between Canada and New York. The British were surprised by the Green Mountain Boys and a militia led by Ethan Allan and Benedict Arnold.
-The Patriots took the fort , gained supplies, and used cannons from the fort to end the siege of Boston.
Battles of the American Revolution- the Battles of Saratoga
September 19, 1777-October 7, 1777
-The first battle at Freeman's Farm in Saratoga County of New York was a British victory, but won at a very high cost of life.
-The British gains were lost when they attacked again at the Battle of Bemis Heights which was a decisive victory for the colonists; the British were forced to retreat, and some were captured.
-This was the last battle in which Benedict Arnold led troops. He was injured and lost his leg. He later wrote treasonous letters to the British and was court marshaled, or arrested by military police, as a traitor.
Battles of the American Revolution- the Battle of Trenton
December 26, 1777
-George Washington crossed the Delaware River into New Jersey and defeated the Hessian soldiers, or German missionaries fighting for England.
-He kept his campfires burning while he left the area. The trick worked and British General Charles Cornwallis saw the fires and thought Washington had camped for the night.
Winter at Valley Forge
The American Continental Army spent the winter in this military camp in northwest Philadelphia. The period was filled with starvation, disease, exposure (death from freezing) and malnutrition. Over 2,500 soldiers died during the winter.
Treaties with France
The US and France signed two treaties to recognize US independence and establish commerce between the two countries.
-Treaty of Amity and Commerce- February 6, 1778- This guaranteed that the two countries would remain friendly on the seas and work together against pirates.
-Treaty of Alliance- February 6, 1778- This guaranteed a defensive alliance between two countries in case the French and British went to war.
Battles of the American Revolution- the Battle of Monmouth
June 28, 1778- The Continental Army under Washington attacked the British as they left the Monmouth Country Courthouse in New Jersey
-Outcome was inconclusive, but it improved Washington's reputation as a military leader.
Battles of the American Revolution- Siege of Charleston
March 29, 1780- May 12, 1780- The British shifted focus to the southern colonies after the collapse of the strategy in the northern colonies.
-British gained control of Charleston, South Carolina.
Battles of the American Revolution- the Battle of Cowpens
January 17, 1781
-This was a turning point in the colonists' re-conquest of South Carolina. It was a great victory for the colonists and helped lead to the eventual defeat of the British at Yorktown.
March 1, 1781-March 4, 1789- Also called the Congress of the Confederation and the US Congress Assembled, this was the first governing body of the USA.
Battles of the American Revolution- Battle of Guilford Court House
March 15, 1781- This was one of the fiercest and largest battles of the southern campaign, and, again, British loses were high although they "won" the conflict.
Bank of North America
May 26, 1781- This was the first official bank of the US, charted by the Confederation Congress and opened in Philadelphia in 1782.
Battles of the American Revolution- the Battle of Yorktown
October 19, 1781- The Patriots were able to trap British General Cornwallis on the Yorktown Peninsula in Virginia with help of the French: the Marquis de Lafayette, Admiral de Grasse, and the Comte de Rochambeau. General Cornwallis surrendered, giving the Patriots the final victory.
British Recognition of American Independence
February 27, 1782- The British House of Commons voted to cease fighting with the colonists and recognize American independence.
Treaty of Paris
September 3, 1783- ratified 1784
-Group of treaties was negotiated for nearly a year and officially ended the Revolutionary War.
-Great Britain officially recognized American independence.
-It established boundaries between the US and British North America.
-Granted fishing rights to US fisherman.
-Settled the issue of debts that were owed on both sides.
-Released prisoners of war and all property belonging to the British Army.
-Dealt with the problem of confiscated lands that belonged to British subjects.
-Granted access to the Mississippi River by both sides.
Key People in the American Revolution- Abigail Adams
-Wife of President John Adams.
-She watched the Battle of Bunker Hill and the burning of Charlestown.
-She is best known for her letters to her husband during the Continental Congresses and the Constitutional Convention containing eyewitness accounts of the war and excellent political commentary.
-President Adams depended on her advice and is known for asking the Continental Congress to consider women when making decisions.
Key People in the American Revolution-John Dyke Acland
A young member of the House of Commons who was a supporter of King George's decision to put down the American Revolution with force.
Key People in the American Revolution- John Adams
-The first vice president and then the second president of the US who was 40 years old in 1776.
-Drew up the Articles of War and was head of the Board of War.
-He was part of the three-man delegation that met with Lord Howe in September 1776.
-Part of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence.
-Supporter of George Washington.
Key People in the American Revolution- Samuel Adams
-Chief Massachusetts leader of the Patriot cause leading to the American Revolution
-An organizer of the Boston Tea Party
-Served in the Continental Congress.
-Was considered an Anti-Federalist and nicknamed the "last puritan".
Key People in the American Revolution- Ethan Allan
-Helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British along with Benedict Arnold and the Green Mountain Boys.
Key People in the American Revolution- Benedict Arnold
-He was a hero at Fort Ticonderoga and the Battle of Saratoga.
-Known as a traitor, he felt he was offered less credit than he deserved for his part in the battles of Fort Ticonderoga and Saratoga. He became a traitor by offering to turn over the fort at West Point to the British.
-He escaped the Patriots but died in poverty in London.
-The term 'Benedict Arnold' is now an expression used to call someone a traitor.
Key People in the American Revolution- Captain Nisbet Balfour
-A British soldier in the Revolutionary War, he was one of Cornwallis' most trusted officers during the Revolution.
-He was injured in the Battle of Bunker Hill, participated in multiple battles, and accompanied Cornwallis to Charleston.
Key People in the American Revolution- Colonial Isaac Barre
-Older member of the House of Commons who fought in the French and Indian War.
-He was the first to call the American rebels "Sons of Liberty".
Key People in the American Revolution- John Burgoyne
-A British army officer know for surrendering his army of 5,000 men during the saratoga campaign in the American Revolution.
-Nicknamed "Gentleman Johnny".
Key People in the American Revolution- Charlotte Sophia, Queen of England
-German Princess and wife of King George III of England.
-Became mother to 15 children
Key People in the American Revolution- General Sir Henry Clinton
-British army officer who was commander-in-chief from 1778 to 1782 and server as general during the American Revolution
Key People in the American Revolution- General Charles Cornwallis
-British colonial governor in America who was actually sympathetic to the colonists but lost the sympathy when the colonists decided to separate from Britain
-He led many battles against the Americans
-Was defeated by a joined French and American force at the Siege of Yorktown, ending the Revolution
Key People in the American Revolution- Willian Dawes
-Colonist who rode from Boston to Lexington to alert Hancock and Adams that British soldiers were coming to arrest them
Key People in the American Revolution- John Dickinson
-Delegate from Pennsylvania who opposed the Declaration and called it a "skiff made of paper" meaning it held no real power.
Key People in the American Revolution- Frederick Douglas
-African American abolitionist, editor, author, diplomat, and reformer
-Best know for being a powerful speaker
-Said "I prayed for freedom for twenty years, but received no answer until I prayed with my legs." meaning he was not freed from slavery until he escaped himself.
Key People in the American Revolution- Ralph Waldo Emerson
-American poet, essayist, and lecturer who wrote the poem "Concord Hymn", which contains the line "the shot heard round the world." This referred to the beginning of the American Revolution and battle in Concord at Old North Bridge
Key People in the American Revolution- Benjamin Franklin
-American printer, scientist, inventor, civic activist, and diplomat from Philadelphia
-Part of the tree-man delegation who met with Lord Howe in September 1776in a last attempt to bring about peace
-Later he went to France and gained alliance that made independence possible
-Published Poor Richard's Almanack and the Pennsylvania Gazette and formed the first public lending library and fire department in America
Key People in the American Revolution- Elizabeth Freeman
-African American slave who sued for her freedom in Massachusetts-her victory prohibited slavery in that state
Key People in the American Revolution- General Thomas Gage
-British military governor who ordered Samuel Adams and John Hancock to be arrested for treason (both escaped) and ordered 700 British to march from Boston to Lexington and Concord
-Participated in the Siege of Boston (Battle of Bunker Hill)
-Was replaced as commander-in-chief by Major General Howe and returned to England
Key People in the American Revolution- Joseph Galloway
-One of two former members of the Continental Congress who went over to the British side and served with General Howe
Key People in the American Revolution- General Horatio Gates
-A former British officer
-Served as an American general at the Battles of Saratoga and Camden
Key People in the American Revolution- King of England, George III
-British monarch during the American Revolution
-Gave a speech to Parliament in October 1775 declaring America to be in rebellion and calling for force to end the revolt
-Was king from 1760 until his death in 1820
-Under his rule advances were made in science and industry
Key People in the American Revolution- Lord George Germain
-British politician who became Secretary of State for the American Colonies for Britain
-Was a war veteran
-British generals reported directly to him
-Felt the revolution could be resolved with one "decisive blow"
Key People in the American Revolution- Admiral Samuel Graves
-Commander of the North American Squadron of Royal Navy(British) in the harbor of Boston at the Battle of Bunker Hill
Green Mountain Boys
-A militia group started in Vermont in the 1760s and headed by Ethan Allen, it became the state militia
Key People in the American Revolution- General Nathanael Greene
-Youngest brigadier general in the army at age 33
-Was a Quaker with little military experience
-Became second-in-command to George Washington and eventually a major general of the Continental Army
-Fought at the Battles of Trenton, Brandywine, and Germantown and served as quartermaster (a military officer responsible for providing quarters, rations, clothing, and other supplies) at Valley Forge
-Took over from General Gates as commander-in-chief of the Southern Army
-He and George Washington were the only general to serve the entire eight years of the war
Key People in the American Revolution- Nathan Hale
-Served as a captain in the Continental Army
-Volunteered for a secret mission but was captured by the British and killed
-He said-"I only regret that I have one life to lose for my country" before being hanged following the Battle of Long Island
-Killed at the age of 21, he is considered America's first spy and an American hero
-Today a statue of Hale is positioned outside the CIA Headquarters
Key People in the American Revolution- Alexander Hamliton
-An American politician, leading statesman, financier, and military officer who founded the Federalist Party
-Was a constitutional lawyer and was influential in the US Constitutional Convention
-Wrote many of the Federalist Papers and served as the first Secretary of the Treasury
Key People in the American Revolution- John Hancock
-American politician from Boston who served as president of the Second Continental Congress
-Merchant whose boycott of tea led to the Boston Tea Party and favored the attack on Boston
- The first signer of the Declaration and the only on to sign of July 4, 1776
Key People in the American Revolution- Patrick Henry
-A believer in the Revolution and republicanism (support for a republican system of government)
-Gifted speaker against corruption in government officials and argued the defense of historic rights
-Best remembered for his "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech
Key People in the American Revolution- William Howe
-British Navy officer who became commander-in-chief of the British forces during the American Revolution, he captured both New York City and Philadelphia
The music for the Texas state song, "Texas, Our Texas," was written by-
William J. Marsh
Green Corn Ceremony
-An annual ceremony practiced among various Native American peoples associated with the beginning of the yearly corn harvest
-These ceremonies happened throughout the North American Eastern Woodlands and Southeastern tribes
-typically occurs in late July-August, determined locally by the ripening of the corn crops
Put these events in the correct order:
1. Common Sense published by Thomas Paine
2. Boston Tea Party
3. Boston Massacre
What Native American became friends with John Smith and helped the colonists at Jamestown?
Who served as Texas' temporary President during the Texas Revolution/
What was the Consultation of August 1835?
-Located at Washington-on-the Brazos, the Consultation served as the provisional government of Mexican Texas from November 1835 to March 1836 during the Texas Revolution.
Key People in the American Revolution- John Jay
-An American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, and jurist
-Thought of as one of the founding fathers
-Served as president of the Continental Congress in 1778
-Co-author of the Federalist Papers
-Served on the US Supreme Court as the first and youngest chief justice from 1789 to 1794
Key People in the American Revolution- Thomas Jefferson
-From Virginia, only 32 years old in 1776
-Chief author of the Declaration of Independence and third president of the US (1801-1809)
-Supporter of republicanism and the separation of church and state
-Wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
-First US Secretary of State and second vice-president
Key People in the American Revolution- Marquis de Lafayette
-Considered a national hero in both France and the US
-Served in the American Army as an unpaid volunteer and was commissioned as a major general of the US
-Served as Washington's chief aide and briefly returned to France to gain financial and military support the the US
-Helped gain victory for the American troops at the Battle of Yorktown which led to the eventual surrender of British troops
-Close friend to Washington and Hamilton
Key People in the American Revolution- Robert Livingston
-Politician, diplomat, and Founding Father of the US
Key People in the American Revolution- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
-American poet and college professor
-Author of "Paul Revere's Ride", "The Song of Hiawatha", and "Evangeline".
Key People in the American Revolution- King Louis XVI
-A French king who supported the American Revolution
Key People in the American Revolution- James Madison
-Fourth president of the US and know as the "Father of the Constitution" as he participated in forming it
-Also one of the chief authors of the "Federalist Papers"
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written under the pseudonym "Publius" by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution
Ila Fox Loetscher
(1904 - January 4, 2000), also known as the "Turtle Lady", was a female aviation pioneer and noted advocate for the care and preservation of sea turtles
The Northern Cheyenne live-
on a reservation next to the Crow reservation in Montana (a small portion of their original homeland), while the Southern Cheyenne were removed to Oklahoma where their descendants still live today.
What will likely happen when production is limited?
Prices will increase because there will be fewer of the products available therefore people will pay more for what they can find
What is Cinco de Mayo?
a celebration among Mexican communities in Mexico and North America marking the Mexican defeat of French troops at the Battle of Puebla in 1862.
What is Ellis Island?
an island in the bay of New York that served as an entry point for immigrants to the US 1892-1943 and as a detention center for people awaiting deportation until 1954. It is now part of a national monument and houses an immigration museum.
Key People in the American Revolution- Lt. James Monroe
-American soldier at the Battle of Trenton and later became the fifth president
Key People in the American Revolution- Lord Frederick North
-Served as Prime Minister of Great Britain during the Revolution
-Was well liked and considered to be smart and fair
- Hired the Germany mercenary troops to aid the British Army
-Not a supporter of the war, he managed it loyally with Lord Germain
Key People in the American Revolution- Thomas Paine
-An intellectual and idealist who helped stir up support for the revolution in his pamphlet Common Sense
-He proposed the name "United States of America" for the country
-Wrote Age of Reason and a speech that Washington read to his troops before crossing the Delaware River-it started with:"These are the times that try men's souls..."
Key People in the American Revolution- Dr. Samuel Prescott
-Colonist who rode to warn the people of Concord that the British Army was coming to capture their military supplies
Key People in the American Revolution- Betsy Ross
-Sewed the flag that flew over Independence Hall when the Declaration of Independence was read
-The original design showed stars with six points, and she suggested the five-point version
Key People in the American Revolution- Dr. Benjamin Rush
-One of the Founding Fathers
-Doctor, writer, teacher, humanitarian, and signer of the Declaration of Independent
Key People in the American Revolution- Edward Rutledge
-Youngest signer of the Declaration of Independence
Key People in the American Revolution- Daniel Shays
-American veteran of the Revolution who fought at the battles of Bunker Hill, Ticonderoga, Saratoga, and Stony Point
-Led a small group of farmers after the Revolution in a revolt against the state government of Massachusetts which became known a Shay's Rebellion
-This revolt was a major factor in why the Articles of Confederation were abandoned
Key People in the American Revolution- Roger Sherman
-Lawyer, politician, and Founding Father who served on the committee that drafted the Declaration
-Only person to sign all four of the greatest state papers of the US
Key People in the American Revolution- John Trumbull
-Artist known for his large paintings of scenes from the American Revolution, including "Surrender of General Burgoyne", "Declaration of Independence", "Surrender at Yorktown", and "Washington Resigning his Commission", all of which hang in the US Capitol building in Washington, D.C.
Key People in the American Revolution- William Tyron
-Served as the royal governor of New York and secretly directed Loyalist operations from the British ship, Asia, anchored off Long Island
Key People in the American Revolution- Mercy Otis Warren
-Female writer who wrote poems and plays that encouraged colonists to oppose British rule
An institution created by the federal government after the Civil War to help African Americans get jobs and an education.
What was the name of the English company that first came tot he New World to begin a colony in 1606?
Virginia Company of London
are navigational maps based on compass directions and estimated distances observed by the pilots at sea. They were first made in the 13th century in Italy, and later in Spain and Portugal, with later 15th and 16th century charts noted for their cartographic accuracy.
What is a tyrant?
an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped (taken by force) legitimate sovereignty. Often described as a cruel character, a tyrant defends his position by oppressive means, tending to control almost everything in the state.
Key People in the America Revolution- General George Washington
-Commander-in-chief of the American forces
-First president of the US
-Nicknamed "Father of his Country"
-Actually lost more battles in the war then he won but was successful because he kept the army together and wore down British resolve
-Avoided decisive battles and exploited enemy mistakes
-Established the idea that civilian-elected officials, rather than military officers, possessed ultimate authority over the military
Key People in the America Revolution- Martha Custis Washington
-Wife of George Washington
Key People in the America Revolution- Phillis Wheatley
-Sold into slavery at the age of seven to John and Susannah Wheatley of Boston
-Later became the first African American felmale writer published in the US
-She received a good education including Latin, Greek, mythology and history, and mastered English
-Washington thanked her for a poem written in his honor but Jefferson was a harsh critic as he was a supporter of the division of church and state and much of Wheatley's writing was on Christian themes
The US is a democracy with a representative type of government- the people choose someone to speak for them and represent them in the government
-people choose their leaders, either directly or indirectly through elections
-power lies with the people, not the government official
Examples: Canada, Mexico, most of Europe, Japan
-a representative democracy
-people elect representatives who act on their behalf when making decisions about laws and policies for the nation or state
Example: United States
checks and balances
-after much debate among the nations' leaders, a three-part government was created
-no part had all the power; each part could review the actions of the others and make corrections if necessary
Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo
(born 1499(?), died January 3, 1543) was an ocean navigator, known for exploring the West Coast of North America on behalf of the Spanish Empire. Cabrillo was the first European to navigate the coast of present-day California in the United States. Cabrillo's expedition recorded the names of numerous Chumash villages on the California coast and adjacent islands.
Committees of Safety and Correspondence
Created in 1835 so that news and information could be delivered quickly. Similar to those in the American Revolution, they were organized in Texas as early as 1832. At first these bodies were not hostile to the Mexican government. Their purpose was to secure the organization of the militia for defense against Indians. Later, they kept people in touch with developments and made possible organized, effective resistance in the Texas Revolution.
the study of Earth and how people use it
Fort at Garcitas Creek
Garcitas Creek is probably the stream on which French fur trader and explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, established Fort St. Louis in 1685. If the site of the fort was on this stream, it is what La Salle called the River of the Buffalo and the Spanish called the Río de los Franceses, or River of the French.
World's oldest parliament
Alþingi (anglicised Althingi og Althing) is the parliament of Iceland. It is the oldest parliament in the world, founded in the year 930 at Þingvellir.
the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.
Major Industries of Colonial America- Farming
-small farms provided enough food for people to be self-sufficient
-some colonies were established to grow crops that could be sent to England
-southern colonies began large plantations to grow tobacco, rice, and indigo, a plant used for making dyes. These items were traded for necessities and luxury items the colonists needed.
Major Industries of Colonial America- Shipbuilding and fishing
-New England colonies focused on the sea for their living
-Shipyards created many jobs through the building of vessels for fleets, sawmills, iron forages, and other related industries
-these industries caused surrounding ports, inns, and shops to be opended
Major Industries of Colonial America- Small buisnesses
-blacksmiths, livery stables, restaurants, gunsmiths, and dry goods stores built near settlements rewarded the hardworking with good wages and a high standard of living
Major Industries of Colonial America- Hides and pelts
obtained from trade with the Native Americans and sent to Britain
Major Industries of Colonial America- Jobs for women
weaving, sewing, and teaching
Development of the Free Enterprise System- Mercantillism
-a policy that Britain made to demand payment from its American colonies to support its London-based merchants
-done to increase British wealth and political power, it hurt the American economy and merchants
-the government of Britain taxed the colonies for goods made in England that were shipped to them
-the government also took a share of goods that the colonies made and sent them home
-colonies were expected to buy only from Britain (could not buy from Spain or France even if they were cheaper)
-money made off the colonies was used to build up the British Royal Navy
free enterprise system
-a system in which private corporations exist to make money and benefit investors
-producers set prices, but the people can decide whether or not to buy that item
-these businesses may be any size and are the backbone of America
-part of the former Thirteen Colonies of the 18th century
-they were made up of the future states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and sometimes Maryland
-today these areas are described as the Mid-Atlantic States.
Why were the Mayan people able to develop a complex empire?
People were able to specialize and develop individual areas of expertise
A "Hooverville" was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States of America. They were named after Herbert Hoover, who was President of the United States of America during the onset of the Depression and was widely blamed for it.
What type of government hurts entrepreneurs?
becoming a citizen of a country
also known as the Lost Colony, established on Roanoke Island, in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina, United States, was a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement. The colony was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh.
Why did the US declare war on Japan?
Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
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