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Functions of bone

supports--the body's internal framework
protection--for internal organs and helps fight disease by producing white blood cells
movement--make possible by working in concert with muscle contraction and relaxation
storage-- stores calcium, a vital resource
hemopoiesis--forms blood cells in red bone marrow

The 4 major types of bones

long, short, flat, irregular

long bones

ex: humerus (upper arm)

short bones

ex: carpals (wrist)

flat bones

ex: frontal (skull)

irregular bones

ex: vertebrae (spinal bones)

Structure of long bones

diaphysis or shaft
medullary cavity
articular cartilage

diaphysis or shaft

structure of long bone; hollow tube of hard compact bone

medullary cavity

structure of long bone; hollow space inside the diaphysis that contain yellow marrow


structure of long bone; ends of the bone and made of spongey bone that contains red bone marrow

articular cartilage

structure of long bone; thin layer that covers each epiphysis; provides a cushion


structure of long bone; strong, fibrous membrane covering bone everywhere, except at joint surfaces


structure of long bone; thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity

the skeletal system is composed of 2 major types of tissue

bone and cartilage





types of bone

spongy and compact

spongy bone

texture results from needle-like threads of bone called trabeculae surrounded by a network of open spaces; found in epiphyses of bones; spaces contain red bone marrow; appear porous to naked eye

compact bone

structural unit is an osteon-calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers or rings called concentric lamella; osteocytes are found inside spaces called lacunae, which are connected by tiny tubes called canaliculi; convered by periosteum; appear solid to naked eye


cell type called chondrocytes located in lacunae; matrix is flexible gel-like substance and lacks blood vessels; nutrients reach chondrocytes by diffusion; injured cartilage heals slowly


form new bone


bone resorbing cells

epiphyseal plate

between epipyses and diaphysis remains until skeletal maturity

epiphyseal line

replaces epiphyseal plate when growth ceases

endochondrial bone formation

bones develop from cartilage models

total bones of the skeleton


how many bones in the axial skeleton


how many bones in the appendicular skeleton


4 normal curves of the spine or vertebral column

cervical curvature (concave)
thoracic curvature (convex)
lumbar curvature (concave)
sacral curvature (convex)

lordosis or (swayback)

the lumbar curve becomes abnormally exaggerated

kyphosis or (hunchback)

abnormal thoracic curvature


abnormal side to side curvature

difference between the size of a man and woman's skeleton

male skeleton is generally bigger

differences in the shape of pelvis

male pelvis is deep and narrow
female pelvis is broad and shallow

differences in the size of pelvic inlet

female pelvic inlet generally wider, normally large enough for baby's head to pass through it

differences in public angle

angle between pubic bones of female are generally wider

every bone except.....connects to at least one other bone

hyoid (anchors the tongue)

Kinds of joints

synarthroses or no mvmnt
amphiarthroses or slight mvmnt
diathroses or free mvmnt


no mvmnt; fibrous connective tissue grows between articulating bones; ex: suturesof skull


slight mvmnt; cartilage connects articulating bones; ex: symphysis pubis


free mvmnt; most joints belong to this class; articular cartilage (covers joint ends of bones and absorbs jolts), synovial fluid (lines joint capsule and secretes lubrication fluid), joint cavity (space betwen joint ends of bones)

free mvmnt joints

ball and socket, hinge, pivot, saddle. gliding, condyloid

malignant tumors of bone and cartilage



malignant bone neoplasm; most common and serious type, frequent sites include distal femur and proximal tibia and humerous


cancer of skeletal hyaline cartilage, 2nd most common cancer of skeletal tissues, frequent sites include medullary cavity of humerus, femur, ribs, and pelvic bones


metabolic bone disease; loss of calcified bone matrix and reduction in the number of trabeculae in spongy bone; bones fracture easily--especially in wrists, hips, and vertebrae; treated by drug therapy, exercise, and dietary supplements if calcium and vitamin D


loss of bone minerals related to vitamin D deficiency; loss of bone minerals occurs in infants and young children before skeletal maturity; lack of bone rigidity causes gross skeletal changes (bowing of legs); treated with vitamin D


loss of bone minerals related to vitamin D deficiency; mineral content is lost from bones that have already matured; increases susceptibility to fractures; treated with vitamin D


term for bacterial (usually staphylococcal infection of the bone); treatment involves surgery, drainage of pus, and IV antibiotic treatment--often over long periods of time

bone fractures--open (compound)

pierce the skin; invite the possibility of infection

bone fractures--closed (simple)

do not pierce the skin; do not pose immediate danger of bone infection

comminuted fractures

breaks that produce many fragments

impacted fractures

bone fractures are driven into each other

linear fracture

fracture line is parallel to the bone's long axis

transverse fracture

fracture line is at a right angle to the bone's long axis

oblique fracture

fracture line is diagonal to the bone's long axis --- spiral fracture-- oblique fracture line spirals around a bone

noninflammatory joint disease

do not usually involve inflammation of the synovial membrane; symptoms tend to be local and not systematic

inflammatory joint disorder

inflammation of the synovial membrane occurs with systematic signs and symptoms


DJD--degenerative joint disease; most common noninflamm disorder of movable joints; "wear and tear" arthritis; symptoms include joint pain, morning stiffness, and appearance of Bouchard nodes and Heberden nodes; most common cause for partial and total hip and knew replacements

traumatic injuries

dislocation or subluxation, sprain, strain

dislocation or subluxation

articular surfaces or bones in joint are no longer in proper contact


acute injury to ligaments around joints (ex: whiplash injuries)


acute injury to any part of the "musculotendoninous unit"

rheumatoid arthritis

systematic autoimmune disease--chronic inflamm of synovial membrane with involvement of other tissues such as blood vessels, eyes, heart, and lungs

gouty arthritis

ovial inflamm caused by gout. a condition in which sodium urate crystals form in joints and other tissues

infectious arthritis

arthritis resulting from infection by a pathogen resulting as in lyme arthritis and ehrlichiosis, caused by two diff types of bacteria that are transmitted to humans by tick bites

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