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66 terms

Anatomy and Physiology chapter 7

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Functions of bone
supports--the body's internal framework
protection--for internal organs and helps fight disease by producing white blood cells
movement--make possible by working in concert with muscle contraction and relaxation
storage-- stores calcium, a vital resource
hemopoiesis--forms blood cells in red bone marrow
The 4 major types of bones
long, short, flat, irregular
long bones
ex: humerus (upper arm)
short bones
ex: carpals (wrist)
flat bones
ex: frontal (skull)
irregular bones
ex: vertebrae (spinal bones)
Structure of long bones
diaphysis or shaft
medullary cavity
epiphyses
articular cartilage
periosteum
endosteum
diaphysis or shaft
structure of long bone; hollow tube of hard compact bone
medullary cavity
structure of long bone; hollow space inside the diaphysis that contain yellow marrow
epiphyses
structure of long bone; ends of the bone and made of spongey bone that contains red bone marrow
articular cartilage
structure of long bone; thin layer that covers each epiphysis; provides a cushion
periosteum
structure of long bone; strong, fibrous membrane covering bone everywhere, except at joint surfaces
endosteum
structure of long bone; thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity
the skeletal system is composed of 2 major types of tissue
bone and cartilage
bone
osteocytes
cartilage
chondrocytes
types of bone
spongy and compact
spongy bone
texture results from needle-like threads of bone called trabeculae surrounded by a network of open spaces; found in epiphyses of bones; spaces contain red bone marrow; appear porous to naked eye
compact bone
structural unit is an osteon-calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers or rings called concentric lamella; osteocytes are found inside spaces called lacunae, which are connected by tiny tubes called canaliculi; convered by periosteum; appear solid to naked eye
cartilage
cell type called chondrocytes located in lacunae; matrix is flexible gel-like substance and lacks blood vessels; nutrients reach chondrocytes by diffusion; injured cartilage heals slowly
osteoblasts
form new bone
osteoclasts
bone resorbing cells
epiphyseal plate
between epipyses and diaphysis remains until skeletal maturity
epiphyseal line
replaces epiphyseal plate when growth ceases
endochondrial bone formation
bones develop from cartilage models
total bones of the skeleton
206
how many bones in the axial skeleton
80
how many bones in the appendicular skeleton
126
4 normal curves of the spine or vertebral column
cervical curvature (concave)
thoracic curvature (convex)
lumbar curvature (concave)
sacral curvature (convex)
lordosis or (swayback)
the lumbar curve becomes abnormally exaggerated
kyphosis or (hunchback)
abnormal thoracic curvature
scoliosis
abnormal side to side curvature
difference between the size of a man and woman's skeleton
male skeleton is generally bigger
differences in the shape of pelvis
male pelvis is deep and narrow
female pelvis is broad and shallow
differences in the size of pelvic inlet
female pelvic inlet generally wider, normally large enough for baby's head to pass through it
differences in public angle
angle between pubic bones of female are generally wider
every bone except.....connects to at least one other bone
hyoid (anchors the tongue)
Kinds of joints
synarthroses or no mvmnt
amphiarthroses or slight mvmnt
diathroses or free mvmnt
synathroses
no mvmnt; fibrous connective tissue grows between articulating bones; ex: suturesof skull
amphiarthroses
slight mvmnt; cartilage connects articulating bones; ex: symphysis pubis
diathroses
free mvmnt; most joints belong to this class; articular cartilage (covers joint ends of bones and absorbs jolts), synovial fluid (lines joint capsule and secretes lubrication fluid), joint cavity (space betwen joint ends of bones)
free mvmnt joints
ball and socket, hinge, pivot, saddle. gliding, condyloid
malignant tumors of bone and cartilage
osteosarcoma
chondrosarcoma
osteosarcoma
malignant bone neoplasm; most common and serious type, frequent sites include distal femur and proximal tibia and humerous
chondrosarcoma
cancer of skeletal hyaline cartilage, 2nd most common cancer of skeletal tissues, frequent sites include medullary cavity of humerus, femur, ribs, and pelvic bones
osteoporosis
metabolic bone disease; loss of calcified bone matrix and reduction in the number of trabeculae in spongy bone; bones fracture easily--especially in wrists, hips, and vertebrae; treated by drug therapy, exercise, and dietary supplements if calcium and vitamin D
Rickets
loss of bone minerals related to vitamin D deficiency; loss of bone minerals occurs in infants and young children before skeletal maturity; lack of bone rigidity causes gross skeletal changes (bowing of legs); treated with vitamin D
Osteomalacia
loss of bone minerals related to vitamin D deficiency; mineral content is lost from bones that have already matured; increases susceptibility to fractures; treated with vitamin D
osteomyelitis
term for bacterial (usually staphylococcal infection of the bone); treatment involves surgery, drainage of pus, and IV antibiotic treatment--often over long periods of time
bone fractures--open (compound)
pierce the skin; invite the possibility of infection
bone fractures--closed (simple)
do not pierce the skin; do not pose immediate danger of bone infection
comminuted fractures
breaks that produce many fragments
impacted fractures
bone fractures are driven into each other
linear fracture
fracture line is parallel to the bone's long axis
transverse fracture
fracture line is at a right angle to the bone's long axis
oblique fracture
fracture line is diagonal to the bone's long axis --- spiral fracture-- oblique fracture line spirals around a bone
noninflammatory joint disease
do not usually involve inflammation of the synovial membrane; symptoms tend to be local and not systematic
inflammatory joint disorder
inflammation of the synovial membrane occurs with systematic signs and symptoms
osteoarthritis
DJD--degenerative joint disease; most common noninflamm disorder of movable joints; "wear and tear" arthritis; symptoms include joint pain, morning stiffness, and appearance of Bouchard nodes and Heberden nodes; most common cause for partial and total hip and knew replacements
traumatic injuries
dislocation or subluxation, sprain, strain
dislocation or subluxation
articular surfaces or bones in joint are no longer in proper contact
sprain
acute injury to ligaments around joints (ex: whiplash injuries)
strain
acute injury to any part of the "musculotendoninous unit"
rheumatoid arthritis
systematic autoimmune disease--chronic inflamm of synovial membrane with involvement of other tissues such as blood vessels, eyes, heart, and lungs
gouty arthritis
ovial inflamm caused by gout. a condition in which sodium urate crystals form in joints and other tissues
infectious arthritis
arthritis resulting from infection by a pathogen resulting as in lyme arthritis and ehrlichiosis, caused by two diff types of bacteria that are transmitted to humans by tick bites